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Delirium is a major health care problem with potentially serious consequences. Sub-optimal management is an unfortunate but pervasive hallmark of the disorder. We argue that lapses in the care of delirious patients are related to the peculiarities of delirium as a disorder that affects the “self” of the sufferer. Therefore, corruption of self renders behaviour outside the control of the delirious individual and places the person at risk of mechanistic dehumanisation. A proposed solution is to foster an expanded view of the self, taken from recent philosophy and cognitive science, which would allow the clinician to understand pathological behaviour as indicative of disruption to thought. An ethics of care approach that reframes the patient/carer relationship is proposed. These unique propositions could, together, facilitate the development of a framework of more caring and effective practices and relationships for delirium treatment.
“No matter what, I will return. This is my base and goal; everything else is variable.”
“I can carry [religion] with me wherever I go, whereas the other things can easily be taken away from me.”
“My idea of religion wasn't about a woman not working or having to dress in a certain way. It was more to do with the faith.”
Some of the primary concerns in Leila Aboulela's fiction are women, faith, and space. These themes are present from her first novel The Translator to Minaret, Lyric's Alley, and The Kindness of Enemies in which her female protagonists are involved in a contest for space, particularly a space to practice their faith as a vital facet of their daily lives, a space that I read here as sacred space. By sacred space, I refer to a concept that moves beyond Mircea Eliade's idea of a space that is distinctly opposed to what he sees as the profane, to a more fluid notion of space that also includes physical and mental spaces that are accommodating, intimate, and life assuring. In this context, sacred space is not tied exclusively to religion, its doctrines and rituals, but is a way of conceiving the world and being-in-the-world that includes one's intimate relationship with loved ones, family, and the community. In both The Translator and Minaret, Aboulela's migration narratives evince a deep concern for the place of her Muslim protagonists in often religious and racially intolerant European societies. In all her novels, her migrant and often out-of-place protagonists seem to undergo a process of rebirth, of having to produce a new life from the brokenness of the old, from the shards of often painful memories. This is enabled, I argue, by their construction and utilization of sacred space. Aboulela shares the view expressed by Amin Malak in the introduction to Muslim Narratives and the Discourse of English that “many Muslims regard religion as a key component of their identity that could rival, if not supersede, their class, race, gender, or ethnic affiliation.” Religion and faith remain central concerns in Aboulela's fiction to the extent that some of her expository passages read like spiritual exhortations.
How cognitive impairment and frailty combine to impact on older adults’ Quality of Life (QoL) is little studied, but their inter-relationships are important given how often they co-occur. We sought to examine how frailty and cognitive impairment, as well as changes in frailty and cognition, are associated with QoL and how these relationships differ based on employment status and social circumstances.
Using the Survey of Health, Ageing, and Retirement in Europe data, we employed moderated regression, followed by simple slopes analysis, to examine how the relationships between levels of health (i.e., of frailty and cognition) and QoL varied as a function of sex, age, education, social vulnerability, and employment status. We used the same analysis to test whether the relationships between changes in health (over two years) and QoL varied based on these same moderators.
Worse frailty (b = −1.61, p < .001) and cognitive impairment (b = −0.08, p < .05) were each associated with lower QoL. Increase in frailty (b = −2.17, p < .001) and cognitive impairment (b = −0.25, p < .001) were associated with lower QoL. The strength of these relationships varied depending on interactions with age, sex, education, social vulnerability, and employment status. Higher social vulnerability was consistently associated with lower QoL in analyses examining both static health (b = −3.16, p < .001) and change in health (b = −0.66, p < .001).
Many predictors of QoL are modifiable, providing potential targets to improve older adults’ QoL. Even so, the relationships between health, cognition, and social circumstances that shape QoL in older adults are complex, highlighting the importance for individualized interventions.
Numerous studies have demonstrated that native Mandarin speakers have pervasive difficulties processing L2 English agreement morphology. However, less is known about the lexical and morphological cues that may modulate Mandarin speakers’ sensitivity to English number agreement. To investigate this, we examined subject-verb agreement processing in English by L1 Mandarin participants using event-related brain potentials (ERPs) and focused on the use of quantificational cues to noun number and their interaction with agreement morphology on the verb. Previous work in English monolinguals has shown that agreement violations elicited larger P600s when preceded by a plurally quantified subject noun phrase (NP) compared to an unquantified NP. In the present study, Mandarin speakers were tested on the same quantified and unquantified sentences (e.g., Most/The cookies taste/*tastes…) as in the prior work. Like the L1 English speakers, ERPs time-locked to the verb showed a reliable P600 in response to agreement violations. However, the P600 in Mandarin speakers was larger for ungrammatical verbs with unquantified subjects, a contrast with English monolinguals. First, these results demonstrate that L2 agreement violations can elicit qualitatively similar neural responses in L1 Mandarin speakers as in English monolinguals (P600 effects), a finding that is to our knowledge novel. Second, quantification modulated the P600 in the L2 speakers in a qualitatively different way than in natives. Overall, these findings suggest stronger reliance on lexical versus morphological cues to number in Mandarin speakers, and that this impacts anticipation of subsequent grammatical features.
This short essay sets the context for the special section on communities, courts and Scottish towns. Scottish burgh records generally, and Aberdeen's UNESCO recognized collection in particular, are considered in light of their legal character. The changing features of pre-modern political society between the fifteenth century and the early nineteenth century are introduced as a shared problem for investigation, and an ancien régime framework is examined as a comparative tool in this field. A vital concern of these articles is with the construction and sometimes contested use of vocabularies of law and authority, privileges and liberties, and ideas of urban ‘community’. Courts at the municipal level, and in the world beyond the burgh, are appreciated as legal and governmental fora. The ambition of this special section is to prompt European comparisons, and encourage greater dialogue with and consideration of Scottish urban records in future research.
Describing the current state of gamification, Chamorro-Premuzic, Winsborough, Sherman, and Hogan (2016) provide a troubling contradiction: They offer examples of a broad spectrum of gamification interventions, but they then summarize the entirety of gamification as “the digital equivalent of situational judgment tests.” This mischaracterization grossly oversimplifies a rapidly growing area of research and practice both within and outside of industrial–organizational (I-O) psychology. We agree that situational judgment tests (SJTs) can be considered a type of gamified assessment, and gamification provides a toolkit to make SJTs even more gameful. However, the term gamification refers to a much broader and potentially more impactful set of tools than just SJTs, which are incremental, versatile, and especially valuable to practitioners in an era moving toward business-to-consumer (B2C) assessment models. In this commentary, we contend that gamification is commonly misunderstood and misapplied by I-O psychologists, and our goals are to remedy such misconceptions and to provide a research agenda designed to improve both the science and the practice surrounding gamification of human resource processes.
There is increasing emphasis on the need for effective ways of sharing knowledge to enhance environmental management and sustainability. Knowledge exchange (KE) are processes that generate, share and/or use knowledge through various methods appropriate to the context, purpose, and participants involved. KE includes concepts such as sharing, generation, coproduction, comanagement, and brokerage of knowledge. This paper elicits the expert knowledge of academics involved in research and practice of KE from different disciplines and backgrounds to review research themes, identify gaps and questions, and develop a research agenda for furthering understanding about KE. Results include 80 research questions prefaced by a review of research themes. Key conclusions are: (1) there is a diverse range of questions relating to KE that require attention; (2) there is a particular need for research on understanding the process of KE and how KE can be evaluated; and (3) given the strong interdependency of research questions, an integrated approach to understanding KE is required. To improve understanding of KE, action research methodologies and embedding evaluation as a normal part of KE research and practice need to be encouraged. This will foster more adaptive approaches to learning about KE and enhance effectiveness of environmental management.
An excavation in the mid-Ordovician (Caradoc) Bardahessiagh Formation at Pomeroy, Co. Tyrone, Northern Ireland in 1992 has yielded a rich fauna of invertebrates, including several specimens of the scleractiniamorph coral Kilbuchophyllia. The material is assigned to the species K. clarksoni, previously described from penecontemporaneous levels in the Kirkcolm Formation of the Northern Belt of the Southern Uplands. The diagnosis of K. clarksoni is extended to include specimens of significantly greater size than the Southern Uplands material. All the material is mouldic but includes composite moulds, which in comparison with the preservation of other faunal elements, strongly suggests an original aragonitic composition for the kilbuchophyllid skeleton. Furthermore, details of insertion of higher cycles of septa visible on one particularly well preserved specimen confirm the process of septal substitution in these corals. Septal substitution is otherwise unique to post-Palaeozoic scleractinian corals and indicates the presence of paired mesenteries in the kilbuchophyllid polyp. The significance of this for the evolution of these corals and related anemones is discussed. The discovery of kilbuchophyllid corals at Pomeroy supports the view that post-Caradoc sinistral strike-slip movement on the Southern Uplands Fault was unlikely to have exceeded 200 km.
We review here the recent characterization of vacuum deposited monolayer and multilayer thin films of two different perylenetetracarboxylic-dianydride-bisimides (Cn-PTCDI; n =4,5), quinacridone, and two new bis-(N-alkyl)-quinacridone dyes (DIQA and DEHQA) on single crystal alkali halides using a combination of in situ luminescence spectroscopies and ex situ tapping mode AFM. Flat lying monolayer structures are indicated for PTCDA on the (100) faces of NaCl, KCl and KBr, for C4-PTCDI on KCl, for C5-PTCDI on both KCl and KBr and for DIQA on both KCl and KBr. Coherent thin films, exhibiting layer-by-layer growth can be achieved for PTCDA on all substrates, for C4-PTCDI on KCl and for DIQA on both KBr and KCl. Both C4-PTCDI and DIQA appear to fulfill the requirements for dyes which exhibit layered growth with the molecular plane inclined at steep angles to the surface normal.
A screening of novel energetic materials is presented. These materials are selected according to their energy content and heat release during ignition. These material mixtures will be fabricated into composites that can also perform structural functions. A composite fabrication route is developed using fluidized bed chemical vapor deposition; coating a metallic layer onto the particles as a method to control mechanical properties and reaction kinetics. These reactive metal matrix composites can be developed to offer optimum performance with specific strength, modulus and energetic capabilities.
The Hurrian city of Nuzi, in modern Iraq, was an important site during the Mesopotamian Bronze Age. Excavations in the late 20s and early 30s yielded a large and important assemblage of glass and other vitreous materials and smaller but significant assemblages of metals and ceramics. Although the vitreous materials have been widely studied in the past, the other assemblages have received little attention. However a recent study of some metal artifacts indicated the presence of brass and dirty copper rather than the expected bronze. This study was, however, limited to a few objects and the proportions of the different alloys was not investigated. Recent analytical studies on the glass beads have highlighted compositional differences between Egyptian and Mesopotamian glass and attempted to link these to the raw materials used. The lack of significant tin or zinc in glasses colored with copper is interesting given the presence of brass and the apparent scarcity of bronze in the copper alloys. The current study involves reassessment of the entire assemblage, concentrating initially on the vitreous materials, glazes and metals. Variations in preservation across the site and within individual buildings are currently being examined. Full characterization of the assemblages will allow relationships between different manufacturing technologies and the raw materials needed to be investigated.
It is difficult to obtain p-type conductivity in beryllium-doped gallium nitride. Even when the material exhibits p-type conductivity, it tends to be highly compensated. Beryllium-doped gallium nitride samples grown by molecular beam epitaxy were investigated using deep level optical spectroscopy (DLOS), photoluminescence (PL), and positron annihilation spectroscopy (PAS) in connection with an annealing study in an attempt to correlate compensation and PL features with microscopic defects.
Interestingly, both DAP PL and a DLOS indicate an energy level that if interpreted as an acceptor would yield an optical activation energy of beryllium in gallium nitride of about 100meV. These signatures are missing in all as-grown gallium-polar gallium nitride doped with beryllium at levels below 2×1014 cm-3. Upon annealing in pure nitrogen or forming gas, the samples clearly exhibit the DAP at 3.38 eV associated with a shallow Be acceptor, but the samples remain semi-insulating. Interestingly, all nitrogen-polar as-grown samples exhibit the DAP emission at 3.38eV. We will discuss more about the effect of annealing on the apparent optical activation of beryllium and the shift of the photoluminescence peak.
DLOS and PAS studies suggest that gallium vacancies and/or gallium-related vacancies are related to compensation in beryllium doped gallium nitride samples. For heavy beryllium doped gallium nitride, there is a correlation between PL at 2.3-2.4eV and a beryllium-related deep acceptor complex. This is supported by PAS studies and DLOS studies. Additionally, there is a correlation between donor-acceptor pair (DAP) at 3.38eV, beryllium concentration, and yellow-red photoluminescence at 2.0 or 2.2eV.
Ferroxane nanoparticles are precursors to iron oxide ceramic porous membranes. The ferroxane-derived ceramics have an average pore size of 24 nm and a surface area of 80 m2/g. Previous work has shown that these membranes have a molecular weight cut off of 180,000 dalton and their permeability is comparable to commercially available membranes. The ferroxane nanoparticles were reacted with manganese acetyl acetonate and then applied to the fabrication of mixed metal oxides. The nanoparticles were dried to form a ceramic chip. Upon sintering, asymmetric mixed metal oxide ceramic membranes were obtained. The materials were characterized by EXAFS, EDAX imaging and IDX mapping. EXAFS showed that the atomic environment of the iron and dopant material was different from those in the initial compounds, thus confirming that the reaction took place. The concentration of dopant metal was between 7% and 10%, with uniform concentration throughout the material.
In recent years that has been an increasing interest in supervision within the UK's cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT) community. This is because the role of supervision has begun to be recognized in relation to the delivery of effective clinical services (Department of Health, 1998), and because of a clear recognition of the need to ensure that CBT practitioners are competent. Perhaps less well recognized in CBT are a number of interesting educational approaches to supervision, ones that may make supervision more successful. This paper summarizes some of these theories from a CBT perspective. Whilst the evidence base does not yet justify being too prescriptive, it is argued that some of these theories, such as Vygotsky's notion of the “Zone of Proximal Development”, provide helpful prompts for reflecting on CBT supervision. An integrative model is constructed from these theories, with illustrative examples and suggestions for future research.