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River networks are critically important ecosystems. This interdisciplinary book provides an integrated ecohydrological framework blending laboratory, field, and theoretical evidence that changes our understanding of river networks as ecological corridors. It describes how the physical structure of the river environment impacts biodiversity, species invasions, population dynamics, and the spread of waterborne disease. State-of-the-art research on the ecological roles of the structure of river networks is summarized, including important studies on the spread and control of waterborne diseases, biodiversity loss due to water resource management, and invasions by non-native species. Practical implications of this research are illustrated with numerous examples throughout. This is an invaluable go-to reference for graduate students and researchers interested in river ecology and hydrology, and the links between the two. Describing new related research on spatially-explicit modeling of the spread of waterborne disease, this book will also be of great interest to epidemiologists and public health managers.
The advent of the CRISPR/Cas9 class of genome editing tools is transforming not just science and medicine, but also law. When the genome of germline cells is modified, the modifications could be inherited, with far-reaching effects in time and scale. Legal systems are struggling with keeping up with the CRISPR revolution and both lawyers and scientists are often confused about existing regulations. This book contains an analysis of the national regulatory framework in eighteen selected countries. Written by national legal experts, it includes all major players in bioengineering, plus an analysis of the emerging international standards and a discussion of how international human rights standards should inform national and international regulatory frameworks. The authors propose a set of principles for the regulation of germline engineering, based on international human rights law, that can be the foundation for regulating heritable gene editing both at the level of countries as well as globally.
Many Western countries have seen an increase in the volume and importance of external consultants in the public policy process. This book is the first to investigate this phenomenon in a comparative and interdisciplinary way. The analysis shows who these consultants are, how widely and for what reasons they are used in Britain, the United States, Canada, Australia, The Netherlands and Sweden. In doing so, the book addresses the positive and negative implications of high levels of external policy consultancy, including its implications for the nature of the state (transforming into a contractor state?) and for democratically legitimized and accountable decision-making (transforming into consultocracy?). It provides valuable new insights for students and practitioners in the fields of public administration, public policy, public management, political science and human resource management.
This enduringly popular undergraduate textbook has been thoroughly reworked and updated, and now comprises twelve chapters covering the same breadth of topics as earlier editions, but in a substantially modernized fashion to facilitate classroom teaching. Covering both theoretical and applied aspects of geophysics, clear explanations of the physical principles are blended with step-by-step derivations of the key equations and over 300 explanatory figures to explain the internal structure and properties of the planet, including its petroleum and mineral resources. New topics include the latest data acquisition technologies, such as satellite geophysics, planetary landers, ocean bottom seismometers, and fibre optic methods, as well as recent research developments in ambient noise interferometry, seismic hazard analysis, rheology, and numerical modelling - all illustrated with examples from the scientific literature. Student-friendly features include separate text boxes with auxiliary explanations and advanced topics of interest; reading lists of foundational, alternative, or more detailed resources; end-of-chapter review questions and an increased number of quantitative exercises. Completely new to this edition is the addition of computational exercises in Python, designed to help students acquire important programming skills and develop a more profound understanding of geophysics.
The modern era is facing unprecedented governance challenges in striving to achieve long-term sustainability goals and to limit human impacts on the Earth system. This volume synthesizes a decade of multidisciplinary research into how diverse actors exercise authority in environmental decision making, and their capacity to deliver effective, legitimate and equitable Earth system governance. Actors from the global to the local level are considered, including governments, international organizations and corporations. Chapters cover how state and non-state actors engage with decision-making processes, the relationship between agency and structure, and the variations in governance and agency across different spheres and tiers of society. Providing an overview of the major questions, issues and debates, as well as the theories and methods used in studies of agency in earth system governance, this book provides a valuable resource for graduate students and researchers, as well as practitioners and policy makers working in environmental governance.
Interpreting and applying macroeconomic analysis to the global economic environment and understanding the tools used to do so is fundamental to making good managerial decisions. Presuming no background in economic theory and prioritizing international application, this textbook introduces macroeconomics to business students. It explains how to understand domestic and global macroeconomic developments, policies, and data, and makes extensive use of case studies and data sets to present modern macroeconomics in a globalized world. Each chapter has several specific data exercises and practices as well as an international application focusing on the global perspective. By providing a host of international material, this book is useful for instructors and students around the globe.
The book provides in-depth insight to scholars, practitioners, and activists dealing with human rights, their expansion, and the emergence of 'new' human rights. Whereas legal theory tends to neglect the development of concrete individual rights, monographs on 'new' rights often deal with structural matters only in passing and the issue of 'new' human rights has received only cursory attention in literature. By bringing together a large number of emergent human rights, analysed by renowned human rights experts from around the world, and combining the analyses with theoretical approaches, this book fills this lacuna. The comprehensive and dialectic approach, which enables insights from individual rights to overarching theory and vice versa, will ensure knowledge growth for generalists and specialists alike. The volume goes beyond a purely legal analysis by observing the contestation, rhetorics, the struggle for recognition of 'new' human rights, thus speaking to human rights professionals beyond the legal sphere.
Present-day elliptical, spiral and irregular galaxies are large systems made of stars, gas and dark matter. Their properties result from a variety of physical processes that have occurred during the nearly fourteen billion years since the Big Bang. This comprehensive textbook, which bridges the gap between introductory and specialized texts, explains the key physical processes of galaxy formation, from the cosmological recombination of primordial gas to the evolution of the different galaxies that we observe in the Universe today. In a logical sequence, the book introduces cosmology, illustrates the properties of galaxies in the present-day Universe, then explains the physical processes behind galaxy formation in the cosmological context, taking into account the most recent developments in this field. The text ends on how to find distant galaxies with multi-wavelength observations, and how to extract the physical and evolutionary properties based on imaging and spectroscopic data.
In this first textbook on international and European disability law and policy, Broderick and Ferri analyse the interaction between different legal systems and sources. Guided by the global legal standards of the CRPD, students are equipped with the necessary background on disability, and are given a comprehensive overview of the legal and policy frameworks on disability. The narrative maintains the balance between theory and practice, focusing on the legal framework and challenges in the realm of policy-making, and ensuring that students are aware of current legal debates and controversial issues in the field. Accommodating different learning styles, the book employs a range of accessible features which include learning outcomes for each chapter, problem questions, group activities, extracts from legal debates and more. Including case studies and examples from around the world, this book has a truly global perspective, suitable for introductory and advanced modules in law departments, as well as interdisciplinary courses.
There has been a rapid expansion of academic interest and publications on polycentricity. In the contemporary world, nearly all governance situations are polycentric, but people are not necessarily used to thinking this way. Governing Complexity provides an updated explanation of the concept of polycentric governance. The editors provide examples of it in contemporary settings involving complex natural resource systems, as well as a critical evaluation of the utility of the concept. With contributions from leading scholars in the field, this book makes the case that polycentric governance arrangements exist and it is possible for polycentric arrangements to perform well, persist for long periods, and adapt. Whether they actually function well, persist, or adapt depends on multiple factors that are reviewed and discussed, both theoretically and with examples from actual cases.
Are ordinary citizens better at predicting election results than conventional voter intention polls? The authors address this question by comparing eight forecasting models for British general elections: one based on voters' expectations of who will win and seven based on who voters themselves intend to vote for (including ‘uniform national swing model’ and ‘cube rule’ models). The data come from ComRes and Gallup polls as well as the Essex Continuous Monitoring Surveys, 1950–2017, yielding 449 months with both expectation and intention polls. The large sample size permits comparisons of the models' prediction accuracy not just in the months prior to the election, but in the years leading up to it. Vote expectation models outperform vote intention models in predicting both the winning party and parties' seat shares.
Social support has been shown to be associated with a reduced likelihood of developing psychotic experiences in the general population and even amongst those at high risk due to exposure to multiple forms of victimisation (poly-victimised). However, it is unclear whether this association is merely due to the confounding effects of shared environmental and genetic influences, or reverse causality. Therefore, we investigated whether social support has a unique environmentally mediated effect on adolescent psychotic experiences after accounting for familial factors, including genetic factors, and also prior psychopathology.
Participants were from the Environmental Risk (E-Risk) Longitudinal Twin Study, a nationally-representative cohort of 2232 UK-born twins. Adolescents were interviewed at age 18 about psychotic experiences and victimisation exposure since age 12, and their perceptions of social support. Prior childhood mental health problems and psychotic symptoms were assessed at age 12. The discordant twin method was used to disentangle the relative family-wide and unique-environmental effects of social support on psychotic experiences in the general population and among poly-victimised adolescents.
Perceived social support, particularly from friends, was found to have a unique environmentally mediated buffering effect on adolescent psychotic experiences in the whole sample and in the high-risk poly-victimised group.
The protective effects of social support on adolescent psychotic experiences cannot be accounted for by shared environmental or genetic factors, nor by earlier psychopathology. Our findings suggest that early intervention programmes focused on increasing perceptions of social support have the potential to prevent the emergence of psychotic experiences amongst adolescents.
Although the concept of sustainable development is widely used as a guiding principle, there is much less consensus on its normative foundation and ethical implications. Since the 1880s, when social tensions threatened to tear apart European societies during the Industrial Revolution, Catholic social teaching (CST) has served as a sound basis for dialogue for many political leaders regardless of national or religious affiliation. This article examines how Pope Francis’ present-day CST might foster a cross-cultural debate on the ethics of economic growth, social and ecological justice and civil participation on Planet Earth as well as in outer space.
We argue that how players perceive the attack-defense game might matter far more than its actual underlying structure in determining the outcomes of intergroup conflict. Leaders can use various tactics to dynamically modify these perceptions, from collective victimization to the distortion of the perceived payoffs, with some followers being more receptive than others to such leadership tactics.
Ibn Raḥīq is an 11th century scholar who compiled a book on popular astronomy. This work included a section in which he summarizes basic knowledge of the Milky Way as it was wide spread in the first centuries after the hejira. Ibn Raḥīq gives a comprehensive overview of the perception of the Milky Way that reaches from its use as a test for knowledge of the religious tradition and for agricultural purposes on the one hand to an exact astronomical description of its shape in the sky during the year and to theories of its nature and composition on the other hand. We use a comparison of his text to those of Ibn al-Haytham and others to investigate the role the Milky Way played in early Islamic civilization from its beginning until the 15th century.
Brilliant cresyl blue (BCB) vital labelling is a powerful method for analyzing the quality of porcine cumulus–oocyte complexes. Our aim was to investigate the correlation between the selection of porcine oocytes using BCB labelling and selected intranuclear characteristics of porcine oocytes and parthenotes. Moreover, BCB labelling was correlated with the diameter of the oocyte and the developmental potential of the parthenotes. The following methods were used: BCB labelling, measurement of the diameter of the oocyte, parthenogenetic activation, immunocytochemistry, transmission electron microscopy, enucleation and relative protein concentration (RPC) analysis. We determined that the diameter of the oocytes in the BCB-positive (BCB+) group was significantly larger than in the BCB-negative (BCB−) group. Immediately after oocyte selection according to BCB labelling, we found significant difference in chromatin configuration between the analyzed groups. BCB+ oocytes were significantly better at maturation than BCB− oocytes. BCB+ embryos were significantly more competent at cleaving and in their ability to reach the blastocyst stage than BCB− embryos. Ultrastructural analyses showed that the formation of active nucleoli in the BCB+ group started at the 8-cell stage. Conversely, most BCB− embryos at the 8-cell and 16-cell stages were fragmented. No statistically significant difference in RPC in nucleolus precursor bodies (NPBs) between BCB+ and BCB− oocytes was found. We can conclude that BCB labelling could be suitable for assessing the quality of porcine oocytes. Moreover, the evaluation of RPC indicates that the quantitative content of proteins in NPB is already established in growing oocytes.