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Although the literature on multi-stakeholder initiatives for sustainability has grown in recent years, it is scattered across several academic fields, making it hard to ascertain how individual disciplines, such as business ethics, can further contribute to the debate. Based on an extensive review of the literature on certification and principle-based MSIs for sustainability (n = 293 articles), we show that the scholarly debate rests on three broad themes (the “3Is”): the input into creating and governing MSIs; the institutionalization of MSIs; and the impact that relevant initiatives create. While our discussion reveals the theoretical underpinnings of the 3Is, it also shows that a number of research challenges related to business ethics remain unaddressed. We unpack these challenges and suggest how scholars can utilize theoretical insights in business ethics to push the boundaries of the field. Finally, we also discuss what business ethics research can gain from theory development in the MSI field.
This paper presents a fully digital transmitter chain from baseband to antenna, including a modulator, two truly digital (i.e. fully switched) microwave power amplifiers and a transmit/receive switch. Both, amplifier and switch monolithic microwave integrated circuits were implemented in a GaN HEMT process. The novel amplifier design provides greatly reduced complexity, needing only three voltage sources. Measurements were conducted using 5, 20, and 100 MHz wide baseband signals. Carrier frequencies cover the 900 and 2000 MHz bands. For the 5 MHz BB signal an ACLR of over 52 dB is reached, fulfilling the 3GPP specs for base station use while still maintaining a final-stage drain efficiency of 46% at 6.5 dB peak to average power ratio. Full-scale output power at 30 V supply voltage was measured to exceed 3 W at 80% drain efficiency. Further features of this digital amplifier approach include small form factor and frequency agility, making it an ideal candidate for software defined radio.
This work explores the uplift history of the best exposed marine terraces in the northeastern Arabian Peninsula (eastern Al Hajar Mountains). A multidisciplinary approach was employed, including a topographic survey, 14C dating, thin section studies, and scanning electron microscopy analyses. Six distinctive marine terraces with widths ranging from tenth of meters to kilometers and elevations from 5 to ~400 m were studied. These terraces record an along-strike heterogeneous uplift history, while they show temporally variable uplift rates ranging between 0.9 to 6.7 mm/yr, which correlates well with other published uplift rates of marine terraces of the eastern Arabian Peninsula. We attribute the variable uplift along strike of the terraces, to a combination of uplift mechanisms: (1) during early to mid-Miocene along deep-rooted reverse faults that bound large crustal-scale blocks, (2) Pliocene or post-Pliocene uplift on the outer wall of the forebulge of the lower Arabian Plate as it bends to enter the Zagros-Makran subduction zone, and (3) a possible slowdown of subduction for the past ~40 ka.
Nearby star-forming galaxies offer a unique environment to study the populations of young (<100 Myr) accreting binaries. These systems are tracers of past populations of massive stars that heavily affect their immediate environment and parent galaxies. Using a Chandra X-ray Visionary program, we investigate the young neutron-star binary population in the low metallicity of the Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC) by reaching quiescent X-ray luminosity levels (~few times 1032 erg/s). We present the first measurement of the formation efficiency of high-mass X-ray binaries (HMXBs) as a function of the age of their parent stellar populations by using 3 indicators: the number ratio of HMXBs to OB stars, to the SFR, and to the stellar mass produced during the specific star-formation burst they are associated with. In all cases, we find that the HMXB formation efficiency increases as a function of time up to ~40–60 Myr, and then gradually decreases.
Almost all confirmed optical counterparts of HMXBs in the SMC are OB stars with equatorial decretion disks (OBe). These sources emit strongly in Balmer lines and standout when imaged through narrow-band Hα imaging. The lack of secure counterparts for a significant fraction of the HMXBs motivated us to search for more. Using the catalogs for OB/OBe stars (Maravelias et al.2017) and for HMXBs (Haberl & Sturm 2016) we detect 70 optical counterparts (out of 104 covered by our survey). We provide the first identification of the optical counterpart to the source XTEJ0050-731. We verify that 17 previously uncertain optical counterparts are indeed the proper matches. Regarding 52 confirmed HMXBs (known optical counterparts with Hα emission), we detect 39 as OBe and another 13 as OB stars. This allows a direct estimation of the fraction of active OBe stars in HMXBs that show Hα emission at a given epoch to be at least ∼75% of their total HMXB population.
Physical activity (PA) may be therapeutic for people with severe mental illness (SMI) who generally have low PA and experience numerous life style-related medical complications. We conducted a meta-review of PA interventions and their impact on health outcomes for people with SMI, including schizophrenia-spectrum disorders, major depressive disorder (MDD) and bipolar disorder. We searched major electronic databases until January 2018 for systematic reviews with/without meta-analysis that investigated PA for any SMI. We rated the quality of studies with the AMSTAR tool, grading the quality of evidence, and identifying gaps, future research needs and clinical practice recommendations. For MDD, consistent evidence indicated that PA can improve depressive symptoms versus control conditions, with effects comparable to those of antidepressants and psychotherapy. PA can also improve cardiorespiratory fitness and quality of life in people with MDD, although the impact on physical health outcomes was limited. There were no differences in adverse events versus control conditions. For MDD, larger effect sizes were seen when PA was delivered at moderate-vigorous intensity and supervised by an exercise specialist. For schizophrenia-spectrum disorders, evidence indicates that aerobic PA can reduce psychiatric symptoms, improves cognition and various subdomains, cardiorespiratory fitness, whilst evidence for the impact on anthropometric measures was inconsistent. There was a paucity of studies investigating PA in bipolar disorder, precluding any definitive recommendations. No cost effectiveness analyses in any SMI condition were identified. We make multiple recommendations to fill existing research gaps and increase the use of PA in routine clinical care aimed at improving psychiatric and medical outcomes.
Background: Based on the vulnerability model, several studies indicate that low self-esteem seems to contribute to depressive symptoms. Aims: The aim of this study was to treat depressive symptoms in a cognitive behavioural group therapy, focusing on the enhancement of self-esteem, and to explore co-variation in depressive symptoms and the level of self-esteem. Method: The Multidimensional Self-esteem Scale (MSWS) and the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) were administered to 147 psychiatric in-patients with current depressive symptoms due to an affective disorder (major depression, bipolar I, dysthymia). Self-esteem was measured pre-treatment (t0) and post-treatment (t4, after 5 weeks of eight group sessions); the BDI was applied weekly. A linear mixed growth analysis was conducted to estimate the change in depressive symptoms including interactions with self-esteem. Results: Within the 5 weeks of group therapy, depressive symptoms showed a linear decline, which was stronger for patients with higher gains in self-esteem between t0 and t4. Self-esteem at t0 was unrelated to the change in depression but predicted self-esteem at t4. Conclusions: Treating depressive symptoms in a cognitive behavioural group therapy in a naturalistic setting might have a positive effect on the process of recovery. Moreover, depressive symptoms and level of self-esteem seemed to co-vary.
The historic Waterberg platinum deposit, ~15 km WNW of Mookgophong (formerly Naboomspruit), Limpopo Province, South Africa, is a rare fault-bound hydrothermal vein-type quartz-hematite-platinum-group mineralization. As a continuation of the geochemistry and ore mineralogy studies (Part I, Oberthür et al., 2018), this paper concentrates on the ore-bearing quartz and on the age constraints of ore formation. The state-of-the-art methods used include cathodoluminescence microscopy, electron probe microanalysis (EPMA) and laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) of trace elements, stable isotope (δ18O) analysis and fluid-inclusion studies. U-Pb and (U-Th)/He radiometric age determination gave ages of 900–1075 Ma suggesting platinum-group element (PGE) mineralization as a result of upwelling fluids with connection to the Bushveld complex during Kibaran tectonic movements along the Thabazimbi–Murchison Lineament. Felsic fragments containing Qtz-1 were cemented by different quartz generations (Qtz-2 to Qtz-4) and enable the characterization of the changing physicochemical parameters during multistage mineralization and cooling. The PGE minerals are associated with the earliest hydrothermal stage represented by botryoidal radial-fibrous quartz aggregates (Qtz-2a) which formed on brecciated felsite. The other quartz types are essentially barren. Cathodoluminescence studies of quartz indicate very high Al, Fe and K concentrations as confirmed by EPMA and LA-ICP-MS, whereas Ti is always very low. The varying Al concentrations in the quartz mainly indicate pH fluctuations, the high Fe3+ points at high oxygen fugacity. Micro-inclusions of iron oxide are associated with Pt ore (Fe, Pt, Pd, Au, W, Sb, As), rutile, kaolinite and muscovite. The hydrothermal activity must have been characterized by low saline (<10 wt%) H2O–NaCl solutions. These fluids mixed with original high-saline NaCl ± CaCl2 ± CO2 brines in the brecciated felsite (Qtz-1). According to the quartz-hematite geothermometer the ore depositional temperatures were ~370–330°C (Qtz-2a), whereas the successive quartz veins formed during cooling towards ~295°C. The transport of PGE must have been facilitated by strongly oxidizing chloride complexes of relatively low salinity and moderate acidity.
A study on locally available composts in Austria, Germany, Italy and Switzerland was conducted to investigate the potential of these non-chemical based tools to increase soil health in orchards afflicted by apple replant disease (ARD). A total of 26 different composts (six to seven per country) were chosen for the study. Composts were divided into ten types according to the waste materials used as substrates in the composting process. Growth reduction is the main symptom associated with replant disease; therefore compost performance was evaluated based on the growth responses of apple rootstock plantlets in compost-amended soils in pots. These greenhouse trials were performed in one research station per country, located in an intensive apple-growing area, and soil was taken from an apple orchard affected by replanting disease. Plant growth response was measured as shoot elongation at the end of each greenhouse trial, and results showed increases in growth compared with the respective controls of 2–26% in 20 out of 26 composts evaluated. The heterogeneous nature of the composts most likely attributed to the finding that similar compost types originating from the different countries had varying effects on plant growth. Overall, no significant changes in chemical and biological properties were observed in amended soils as compared with non-amended controls. The high soil resilience was in part expected given the good organic matter content in the original soils (>2%). The bacterial communities of the composts were investigated using the COMPOCHIP microarray, and analyses showed that differences in plant growth response were mainly attributed to the microbial changes introduced into the soil through composts rather than to changes in soil chemical and biological parameters. However, the bacterial communities of composts appeared to be more influenced by geographical origin than by compost type. The results have shown that soil amendment with composts generated from locally produced wastes have the potential to reduce the effects of ARD, although the effects appear to be both compost and soil specific.
SN 1987A has been observed with the Chandra X-ray Observatory over the entire course of the mission. We have re-analyzed the archival data by constructing an empirical point spread function and reconstructing high-resolution images using a Bayesian multi-scale image reconstruction algorithm. We are able to resolve structure in the equatorial ring of SN 1987A with unprecedented detail, at scales of
arcsec. We describe how the point spread function is constructed, and the reconstruction method, and explore the evolution of the inner ring at different epochs and passbands.
The Shackleton Range is a truncated Pan-African Orogen situated at the Weddell Sea margin of East Antarctica. It almost exclusively consists of basement rocks exposed at an elevated, escarpment-bound palaeosurface and is covered locally by patchy remnants of Ordovician, Permian and, controversially, Jurassic terrestrial deposits. This inventory does not match the geological record of any other place in Antarctica. Here we reconstruct the Phanerozoic evolution of the Shackleton Range by means of a multi-disciplinary approach combining petrological, geochemical and geochronological data with thermal history models of zircon and apatite fission track (ZFT, AFT) and (U–Th–Sm)/He (AHe) data. Petrographic, geochemical and 40Ar/39Ar analyses of a sedimentary cover sequence identify volcaniclastic rocks related to the Ferrar/Karoo magmatic event. Thermal history modelling of ZFT ages of 160–215 Ma, AFT ages of 124–225 Ma, AHe ages of 95–169 Ma and kinematic proxies in combination with geological information indicates a complex thermal history comprising at least three cooling episodes interrupted by reheating pulses. Thermal history refers to inversion of part of the Carboniferous–Triassic Transantarctic Basin prior to the 180 Ma Ferrar/Karoo Event and formation of an up to 3.4 km deep extensional Jurassic – Early Cretaceous basin due to Weddell Sea rifting. Basin depth was diminished by regional middle Cretaceous stress field changes. Final basin inversion and surface uplift were likely triggered by far-field tectonics and climatic influence. This history represents a typical example for the transition from an active to passive margin setting along the outer rim of Gondwana.
We analyse temporal trends and regional variation among the most recent available anthropometric data from German conscription in the years 2008–2010 and their historical contextualization since 1956.
The overall sample included German conscripts (N 13 857 313) from 1956 to 2010.
German conscripts changed from growing in height to growing in breadth. Over the analysed 54 years, average height of 19-year-old conscripts increased by 6·5 cm from 173·5 cm in 1956 (birth year 1937) to 180·0 cm in 2010 (birth year 1991). This increase plateaued since the 1990s (1970s birth years). The increase in average weight, however, did not lessen during the last two decades but increased in two steps: at the end of the 1980s and after 1999. The weight and BMI distributions became increasingly right-skewed, the prevalence of overweight and obesity increased from 11·6 % and 2·1 % in 1984 to 19·9 % and 8·5 % in 2010, respectively. The north–south gradient in height (north = taller) persisted during our observations. Height and weight of conscripts from East Germany matched the German average between the early 1990s and 2009. Between the 1980s and the early 1990s, the average chest circumference increased, the average difference between chest circumference when inhaling and exhaling decreased, as did leg length relative to trunk length.
Measuring anthropometric data for military conscripts yielded year-by-year monitoring of the health status of young men at a proscribed age. Such findings contribute to a more precise identification of groups at risk and thus help with further studies and to target interventions.
Preparation of three-dimensionally architectured porous biomaterials can be achieved in a one-step process by stabilizing gelatin with L-lysine diisocyanate ethyl ester (LDI) in water. The reaction of gelatin with LDI in presence of water leads to the formation of oligourea bridges between gelatin molecules and oligourea chains grafted on gelatin. The number and the length of the bridges, as well as of the grafted chains strongly depend on the concentration of the LDI used for the stabilization, and this has huge influence on the mechanical properties of the material on different hierarchical levels. Higher LDI concentrations yield materials with increased deformation resistance in tensile tests due to the higher number of covalent and physical netpoints in the material. However, mechanical properties determined on the micro-level by AFM indentation showed the opposite trend, i.e. a decrease of Young’s modulus with increasing LDI content. This was interpreted by a decreasing number of shorter oligourea bridges between gelatin chains with decreasing LDI content.
Empathy is a basic human ability, and patients with schizophrenia show
dysfunctional empathic abilities on the behavioural and neural level.
These dysfunctions may precede the onset of illness; thus, it seems
mandatory to examine the empathic abilities in individuals at clinical
high risk for psychosis.
Using functional magnetic resonance imaging, we measured 15 individuals
at clinical high risk of psychosis (CHR group) and compared their empathy
performance with 15 healthy volunteers and 15 patients with
Behavioural data analysis indicated no significant deficit in the CHR
group. Functional data analysis revealed hyperactivation in a
frontotemporoparietal network including the amygdala in the CHR group
compared with the other two groups.
Despite normal behavioural performance, the CHR group activated the
neural empathy network differently and specifically showed
hyperactivation in regions critical for emotion processing. This could
suggest a compensatory mechanism reflecting emotional hypersensitivity or
dysfunctional emotion regulation. Further investigations should clarify
the role of these neural alterations for development and exacerbation of
Outer-halo globular clusters show large half-light radii and flat stellar mass functions, depleted in low-mass stars. Using N-body simulations of globular clusters on eccentric orbits within a Milky Way-like potential, we show how a cluster’s half-mass radius and its mass function develop over time. The slope of the central mass function flattens proportionally to the amount of mass a cluster has lost, and the half-mass radius grows to a size proportional to the average strength of the tidal field. The main driver of these processes is mass segregation of dark remnants. We conclude that the extended, depleted clusters observed in the Milky Way must have had small half-mass radii in the past, and that they expanded due to the weak tidal field they spend most of their lifetime in. Moreover, their mass functions must have been steeper in the past but flattened significantly as a cause of mass segregation and tidal mass loss.
Crystalline Au nanoparticles embedded in epitaxially grown SrTiO3 layers were prepared by an annealing and coating procedure of Au seed layers on SrTiO3 (STO) substrates. X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy measurements were performed to investigate the size, shape, and deformation of the particles and their crystal orientation. The shape and size of the crystalline Au nanoparticles can be tuned by controlling the Au seed layer thickness and single crystalline elliptically shaped Au nanoparticles have been generated. Furthermore, the orientation of the surrounding SrTiO3 matrix changes significantly from homoepitaxially grown (001) to secondary (111) and (011) orientations for Au seed layers that are thicker than 4 nm. This is of great interest for modifying the electrical properties of SrTiO3 layers, whereas the anisotropically shaped crystalline particles are relevant for optical applications, due to localized surface plasmon resonances.
Observations show that glaciers around the world are in retreat and losing mass. Internationally coordinated for over a century, glacier monitoring activities provide an unprecedented dataset of glacier observations from ground, air and space. Glacier studies generally select specific parts of these datasets to obtain optimal assessments of the mass-balance data relating to the impact that glaciers exercise on global sea-level fluctuations or on regional runoff. In this study we provide an overview and analysis of the main observational datasets compiled by the World Glacier Monitoring Service (WGMS). The dataset on glacier front variations (∼42 000 since 1600) delivers clear evidence that centennial glacier retreat is a global phenomenon. Intermittent readvance periods at regional and decadal scale are normally restricted to a subsample of glaciers and have not come close to achieving the maximum positions of the Little Ice Age (or Holocene). Glaciological and geodetic observations (∼5200 since 1850) show that the rates of early 21st-century mass loss are without precedent on a global scale, at least for the time period observed and probably also for recorded history, as indicated also in reconstructions from written and illustrated documents. This strong imbalance implies that glaciers in many regions will very likely suffer further ice loss, even if climate remains stable.