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To assess whether a community water service is associated with the frequency of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSB) consumption, obesity, or perceived health status in rural Alaska.
We examined the cross-sectional associations between community water access and frequency of SSB consumption, body mass index categories, and perceived health status using data from the 2013 and 2015 Alaska Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS). Participants were categorized by zip code to ‘in-home piped water service’ or ‘no in-home piped water service’ based on water utility data. We evaluated the univariable and multivariable (adjusting for age, household income and education) associations between water service and outcomes using log-linear survey-weighted generalized linear models.
Rural Alaska, USA.
Eight hundred and eighty-seven adults, aged 25 years and older.
In unadjusted models, participants without in-home water reported consuming SSB more often than participants with in-home water (1·46, 95 % CI: 1·06, 2·00). After adjustment for potential confounders, the effect decreased but remained borderline significant (1·29, 95 % CI: 1·00, 1·67). Obesity was not significantly associated with water service but self-reported poor health was higher in those communities without in-home water (1·63, 95 % CI: 1·05, 2·54).
Not having access to in-home piped water could affect behaviours surrounding SSB consumption and general perception of health in rural Alaska.
Psychological treatment for functional somatic syndromes (FSS) has been found moderately effective. Information on how much treatment is needed to obtain improvement is sparse. We assessed the efficacy of a brief and extended version of group-based Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT) v. enhanced care (EC) for patients with multiple FSS operationalised as Bodily Distress Syndrome multi-organ type.
In a randomised controlled three-armed trial, consecutively referred patients aged 20–50 with multiple FSS were randomly assigned to either (1) EC; (2) Brief ACT: EC plus 1-day workshop and one individual consultation; or (3) Extended ACT: EC plus nine 3-h group-based sessions. Primary outcome was patient-rated overall health improvement on the five-point clinical global improvement scale 14 months after randomisation. A proportional odds model was used for the analyses.
A total of 180 patients were randomised; 60 to EC, 61 to Brief ACT, and 59 to Extended ACT. Improvement on the primary outcome after Extended ACT was significantly greater than after EC with an unadjusted OR of 2.9 [95% CI (1.4–6.2), p = 0.006]. No significant differences were found between Brief ACT and EC. Of the 18 secondary outcomes, the only significant difference found was for physical functioning in the comparison of Extended ACT with EC.
Patients rated their overall health status as more improved after Extensive ACT than after EC; however, clinically relevant secondary outcome measures did not support this finding. Discrepancies between primary and secondary outcomes in this trial are discussed.
After the Multidimensional Inventory for Religious/Spiritual Well-Being (MI-RSWB) was validated as a reliable instrument for the Western European context it is primarily intended in this study to translate the measure into Spanish and adapt it for the Mexican culture. Furthermore we investigate whether spirituality/religiosity has a similar impact on indicators of personality and subjective well-being in Mexico as it does in samples drawn from Western European cultures. 190 students (99 females) from public and private universities in Guadalajara, all Mexican citizens, were involved in this study. We found strong evidential support for the six factor solution of the Original MI-RSWB in this Mexican population. By mirroring previous research the measure showed a highly satisfying internal consistency (α = .91 for the total score and .75 or higher for all six sub dimensions). Furthermore the total RSWB score was observed to be related with Eysenck’s personality dimensions Extraversion (r = .24, p < .01), and Psychoticism (r = –.28, p < .001), although not with Neuroticism. There was also a positive correlation with Sense of Coherence (r = .31, p < .001). In conclusion, the dimensionality of RSWB and its associations with personality and subjective well-being was well supported in this first application within a Mexican cultural context.
Converging evidence indicates that a considerable amount of variance in self-estimated emotional competency can be directly attributed to genetic factors. The current study examined the associations between the polymorphisms of the Catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT Met158Val) and the serotonin transporter (5-HTTLPR) and specific measures of the self-estimated effectiveness of an individual’s emotion perception and regulation. Emotional competence was measured in a large sample of 289 healthy women by using the Self-report Emotional Ability Scale (SEAS), which includes two subscales for the assessment of emotion perception and regulation in the intra-personal domain and two subscales for the assessment of emotion perception and regulation in the inter-personal domain. Participants’ reports of effective emotion regulation in everyday life were associated with the COMT Met-allele, with women homozygous for the Val-allele scoring lowest on this scale. Self-estimated effectiveness of emotion perception of the individual’s own emotions was related to the 5-HTTLPR. Both homozygous groups (s/s and l/l) rated their intra-personal emotion perception less effective than participants in the heterozygous s/l group. Taken together, the results indicate that genetic variants of the COMT and 5HTTLPR genes are differentially associated with specific measures of the self-estimated effectiveness of an individual’s emotion perception and regulation in the intra-personal domain. (JINS, 2014, 20, 1–9)
Many specialty-specific functional somatic syndrome diagnoses exist to
describe people who are experiencing so-called medically unexplained
symptoms. Although cognitive–behavioural therapy can be effective in the
management of such syndromes, it is rarely available. A
cognitive–behavioural therapy suitable for group treatment of people with
different functional somatic syndromes could address this problem.
To test the efficacy of a cognitive–behavioural therapy (Specialised
Treatment for Severe Bodily Distress Syndromes, STreSS) designed for
patients with a range of severe functional somatic syndromes.
A randomised controlled trial (clinicaltrials.gov, NCT00132197) compared
STreSS (nine 3.5 h sessions over 4 months, n = 54) with
enhanced usual care (management by primary care physician or medical
specialist, n = 66). The primary outcome was improvement
in aggregate score on subscales of the 36-item Short Form Health Survey
(physical functioning, bodily pain and vitality) at 16 months.
Participants receiving STreSS had a greater improvement on the primary
outcome (adjusted mean difference 4.0, 95% CI 1.4–6.6, P
= 0.002) and on most secondary outcomes.
In the management of functional somatic syndromes, a
cognitive–behavioural group treatment was more effective than enhanced
Cathodoluminescence spectra of GaInN quantum well structures show a strong change of intensity and a emission energy shift during electron beam irradiation. Measurements on samples with quantum well positions varying in depth show, that the spontaneous field, witch is usually screened by surface charges, penetrates the sample in a timescale of minutes and reduces the quantum confined Stark effect.
Research on individual differences in human cognitive abilities or intelligence has a long history in scientific psychology. After decades of psychometric research into the structure of human cognitive abilities, the last 20 to 30 years have been characterized also by attempts to analyze cognitive components and correlates of psychometric intelligence. In this realm an important approach has been the attempt to relate the individual speed of information processing to psychometric intelligence (the so-called mental speed approach). This approach traces back to the idea that human cognitive or intellectual functioning might be decomposed in elementary cognitive processes, which are assumed to constitute an important basis of intellectual functioning. In the last two decades important progress has been made in this field of research: In using so-called elementary cognitive tasks (ECTs), which put only minimal requirements on the participants and are, thus, less likely prone to differential strategy usage, dozens of studies have provided converging evidence that shorter reaction times in these tasks are associated with higher psychometric intelligence, indicating a higher speed of information processing in brighter individuals.
The ECTs that have been used most extensively in this field of research are the Hick and the inspection time (IT) paradigm (see Fig. 1a). In the IT paradigm (cf. Vickers, Nettelbeck, & Wilson, 1972) participants are tachistoscopically (i.e., for very short exposure durations) shown two vertical lines of different length. Immediately after their exposure, the lines are masked by two thicker vertical lines of equal length.
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