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Although leucocytes are targets of renin-angiotensin system (RAS) effector molecules and RAS-modulating drugs exert immunomodulatory effects, their impact on Trypanosoma cruzi infection remains poorly understood. By using the framework of a systematic review, we integrated the preclinical and clinical evidence to investigate the relevance of angiotensin-inhibiting drugs on T. cruzi infections. From a comprehensive and structured search in biomedical databases, only original studies were analysed. In preclinical and clinical studies, captopril, enalapril and losartan were RAS-modulating drugs used. The main in vitro findings indicated that these drugs increased parasite uptake per host cells, IL-12 expression by infected dendritic cells and IFN-γ by T lymphocytes, in addition to attenuating IL-10 and IL-17 production by CD8 + T cells. In animal models, reduced parasitaemia, tissue parasitism, leucocytes infiltration and mortality were often observed in T. cruzi-infected animals receiving RAS-modulating drugs. In patients with Chagas’ disease, these drugs exerted a controversial impact on cytokine and hormone levels, and a limited effect on cardiovascular function. Considering a detailed evaluation of reporting and methodological quality, the current preclinical and clinical evidence is at high risk of bias, and we hope that our critical analysis will be useful in mitigating the risk of bias in further studies.
Materials science is a growing research area in Uruguay. In order to obtain a brief overview of the research done we collected information about research in this field. As a starting point, we searched in the Scopus database for the keywords: affiliation country: “Uruguay” and subject: “Materials Science” (using the “Timbó” platform). We inspected the records and we analyzed them to construct a timeline. The data show that we are in a steady state regime of number of publications that we expect to increase together with the number of students in the area, with the generation of long term policies (grants, funding opportunities), and, if we get involved in a community that promotes this area of interest.
To compare cognitive function among frail and prefrail older adults.
Cross-sectional clinical study.
Fifty-one non-institutionalized older individuals participated in this study.
Cognitive functions were evaluated through Mini-Mental State Examination (Global Cognition), Digit Span Forward (short-term memory), Digit Span Backward (working memory), Verbal Fluency Test (semantic memory/executive function). Data were compared using parametric and non-parametric bivariate tests. Binary logistic regression was used to test a frailty prediction model. Statistical significance was defined as p ≤ 0.01 to compare groups. In the regression model, the p value was set to be ≤0.05.
Statistically significant differences were observed in global cognition, and short-term memory between frail and prefrail individuals (p ≤ 0.01). Global cognition explained 14–19% of frailty's model.
According to our findings, the evaluation of cognitive functions among older persons with frailty and prefrailty provides important complementary information to better manage frailty and its progression.
In this review, we explore the state-of-the-art of sand fly relationships with microbiota, viruses and Leishmania, with particular emphasis on the vector immune responses. Insect-borne diseases are a major public health problem in the world. Phlebotomine sand flies are proven vectors of several aetiological agents including viruses, bacteria and the trypanosomatid Leishmania, which are responsible for diseases such as viral encephalitis, bartonellosis and leishmaniasis, respectively. All metazoans in nature coexist intimately with a community of commensal microorganisms known as microbiota. The microbiota has a fundamental role in the induction, maturation and function of the host immune system, which can modulate host protection from pathogens and infectious diseases. We briefly review viruses of public health importance present in sand flies and revisit studies done on bacterial and fungal gut contents of these vectors. We bring this information into the context of sand fly development and immune responses. We highlight the immunity mechanisms that the insect utilizes to survive the potential threats involved in these interactions and discuss the recently discovered complex interactions among microbiota, sand fly, Leishmania and virus. Additionally, some of the alternative control strategies that could benefit from the current knowledge are considered.
We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis on the prevalence and factors associated with Schistosoma mansoni infection in Brazil. We searched the PubMed, Web of Science and Latin-American and Caribbean System on Health Sciences Information (LILACS) databases, scientific publications articles, according to The PRISMA Statement, from 2000 to 2016. A total of 27 studies were included according to the established criteria. The prevalence of S. mansoni infection varied widely, from 0·1 to 73·1%, based on Kato-Katz technique. Of the identified studies, 42·9% were performed in the state of Minas Gerais, and 33·3% were performed in the northeast region of Brazil. We identified sex, age, education level, family income, contact with water and the presence of the intermediate host snail as major risk factors associated with infection. The meta-analysis summarized a high prevalence rate pooled for Schistosoma mansoni. On the other hand, the analysis of the subgroup showed a highly significant reduction of the prevalence rate after control measures. The epidemiological factors evidenced in the studies show the influence of environmental and social conditions on the occurrence of schistosomiasis.
To investigate the association between neighbourhood food availability and the consumption of ready-to-consume products (RCP), either processed or ultra-processed, and unprocessed/minimally processed foods (UF-MPF) by children.
Cross-sectional. 24 h Dietary recalls were collected from children from January 2010 to June 2011. Neighbourhood food availability data were collected from 672 food stores located within 500 m of participants’ homes, using an adapted and validated instrument. Neighbourhood-level socio-economic status (SES) was obtained by calculating the mean years of household head’s education level in each census tract covered by 500 m buffers. Foods that were consumed by children and/or available in the food stores were classified based on their degree of industrial processing. Multilevel random-effect models examined the association between neighbourhood food availability and children’s diets.
Children (n 513) under 10 years old (292 aged <6 years, 221 aged ≥6 years).
The availability of RCP in food stores was associated with increased RCP consumption (P<0·001) and decreased UF-MPF consumption (P<0·001). The consumption of UF-MPF was positively associated with neighbourhood-level SES (P<0·01), but not with the availability of UF-MPF in the neighbourhood.
Results suggest that food policies and interventions that aim to reduce RCP consumption in Santos and similar settings should focus on reducing the availability in food stores. The results also suggest that interventions should not only increase the availability of UF-MPF in lower-SES neighbourhoods, but should strive to make UF-MPF accessible within these environments.
Polyaniline (PAni)/B-doped diamond/carbon fiber (CF) ternary composites were produced and characterized, aiming their application as electrodes for supercapacitor device. In order to optimize the composite properties, structurally different CF substrates, heat treated at 1000 and 2000°C, were used to grown diamond films. Moreover, the diamond films were grown on CF in two different morphologies, boron doped micro and nanocrystalline diamond (BDD/BDND), by Hot Filament Chemical Vapor Deposition (HFCVD) technique. FEG-SEM images showed that PAni covered and enwrapped the diamond/CF surfaces, producing tridimensional electrodes. Raman spectra confirmed the PAni formation for all composites. Electrochemical characterizations indicated that the PAni/BDD/CF2000 composite has the highest current density and capacitance response among the studied composites combinations. In addition, it showed the most reversible oxidation and reduction processes, the greatest charge storage capacity as well as the lowest charge transfer resistance.
In the frame of the COST ACTION ‘EMBOS’ (Development and implementation of a pan-European Marine Biodiversity Observatory System), coverage of intertidal macroalgae was estimated at a range of marine stations along the European coastline (Subarctic, Baltic, Atlantic, Mediterranean). Based on these data, we tested whether patterns in macroalgal diversity and distribution along European intertidal rocky shores could be explained by a set of meteo-oceanographic variables. The variables considered were salinity, sea surface temperature, photosynthetically active radiation, significant wave height and tidal range and were compiled from three different sources: remote sensing, reanalysis technique and in situ measurement. These variables were parameterized to represent average conditions (mean values), variability (standard deviation) and extreme events (minimum and maximum values). The results obtained in this study contribute to reinforce the EMBOS network approach and highlight the necessity of considering meteo-oceanographic variables in long-term assessments. The broad spatial distribution of pilot sites has allowed identification of latitudinal and longitudinal gradients manifested through species composition, diversity and dominance structure of intertidal macroalgae. These patterns follow a latitudinal gradient mainly explained by sea surface temperature, but also by photosynthetically active radiation, salinity and tidal range. Additionally, a longitudinal gradient was also detected and could be linked to wave height.
Examining how variability in population abundance and distribution is allotted among different spatial scales can inform of processes that are likely to generate that variability. Results of studies dealing with scale issues in marine benthic communities suggest that variability is concentrated at small spatial scales (from tens of centimetres to few metres) and that spatial patterns of variation are consistent across ecosystems characterized by contrasting physical and biotic conditions, but this has not been formally tested. Here we quantified the variability in the distribution of intertidal rocky shore communities at a range of spatial scales, from tens of centimetres to thousands of kilometres, both in the NE Atlantic and the Mediterranean, and tested whether the observed patterns differed between the two basins. We focused on canopy-forming macroalgae and associated understorey assemblages in the low intertidal, and on the distribution of Patella limpets at mid intertidal levels. Our results highlight that patterns of spatial variation, at each scale investigated, were consistent between the Atlantic and the Mediterranean, suggesting that similar ecological processes operate in these regions. In contrast with former studies, variability in canopy cover, species richness and limpet abundance was equally distributed among spatial scales, possibly reflecting the fingerprint of multiple processes. Variability in community structure of low intertidal assemblages, instead, peaked at the largest scale, suggesting that oceanographic processes and climatic gradients may be important. We conclude that formal comparisons of variability across scales nested in contrasting systems are needed, before any generalization on patterns and processes can be made.
In recent decades, archaeology has provided evidence of the diverse nature of colonialism as well as of the specific local histories associated with this globalizing process. Archaelogists have also investigated the strategies of interaction and resistance adopted by indigenous peoples when faced with attempts at economic, political, and social domination. This article presents data about the dynamics of mobility and territorial occupation in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries of the Asurini do Xingu, an indigenous group living on the middle Xingu River in the Amazon rainforest, in the southern portion of the Brazilian state of Pará. We show that these dynamics represent a conscious and strategic choice by the Asurini to preserve their way of life in the face of colonialism and the expansion of capitalism.
To describe the process adopted to identify, classify, and evaluate legacy of health care planning in the host city of Porto Alegre for the Football World Cup 2014.
There is an emerging interest in the need to demonstrate a sustainable health legacy from mass gatherings investments. Leaving a public health legacy for future host cities and countries is now an important part of planning for these events.
The Ministry of Sports initiated and coordinated the development of projects in the host cities to identify actions, projects, and constructions to be developed to prepare for the World Cup. In Porto Alegre, a common structure was developed by the coordinating team to instruct legacy identification, classification, and evaluation. This structure was based on international documentary analysis (including official reports, policy documents, and web-based resources) and direct communication with recognized experts in the field.
Findings and Interpretation
Sixteen total legacies were identified for health surveillance (5) and health services (11). They were classified according to the strategic area, organizations involved, dimension, typology, planned or unplanned, tangible or intangible, territorial coverage, and situation prior to the World Cup. Possible impacts were then assessed as positive, negative, and potentiating, and mitigating actions were indicated.
The project allowed the identification, classification, and development of health legacy, including risk analysis, surveillance, mitigation measures, and provision of emergency medical care. Although the project intended the development of indicators to measure the identified legacies, evaluation was not possible at the time of publication due to time.
WittRR, KotlharMK, MesquitaMO, LimaMADS, MarinSM, DayCB, BandeiraAG, HuttonA. Developing Legacy: Health Planning in the Host City of Porto Alegre for the 2014 Football World Cup. Prehosp Disaster Med. 2015;30(6):613–617.
Aglajidae is a family of tropical and temperate marine Cephalaspidea gastropod slugs regarded as active predators. In order to better understand their food habits and trophic interactions, we have studied the diet of all genera through the examination of gut contents. Specimens were dissected for the digestive tract and gut contents were removed and identified by optical and scanning electron microscopy. Our results confirmed that carnivory is the only feeding mode in aglajids and showed a sharp preference for vagile prey (94% of food items). We suggest that the interaction between crawling speed, presence of sensorial structures capable of detecting chemical signals from prey, and unique features of the digestive system (e.g. lack of radula, eversion of the buccal bulb, thickening of gizzard walls) led aglajid slugs to occupy a unique trophic niche among cephalaspideans, supporting the hypothesis that dietary specialization played a major role in the adaptive radiation of Cephalaspidea gastropods.
A layered composite coating material with favorable properties for application as a transparent conductor is presented. It is composed of layers of three nanoscopic materials, namely zinc oxide nanoparticles, single wall nanotubes, and graphene oxide nanosheets. The electrically conducting layer consists of single wall nanotubes (SWNTs). The layer of zinc oxide nanoparticles acts as a primer. It increases the adhesion and the stability of the films against mechanical stresses. The top layer of graphene oxide enhances the conductivity of such coatings. Such three-layer composite coatings show better conductivity (without compromising transparency) and improved mechanical stability compared to pure SWNT films. The processes used in the preparation of such coatings are easily scalable.
The metabolic syndrome (MetS) comprises pathological conditions that include insulin resistance, arterial hypertension, visceral adiposity and dyslipidaemia, which favour the development of CVD. Some reports have shown that cranberry ingestion reduces cardiovascular risk factors. However, few studies have evaluated the effect of this fruit in subjects with the MetS. The objective of the present study was to assess the effect of reduced-energy cranberry juice consumption on metabolic and inflammatory biomarkers in patients with the MetS, and to verify the effects of cranberry juice concomitantly on homocysteine and adiponectin levels in patients with the MetS. For this purpose, fifty-six individuals with the MetS were selected and divided into two groups: control group (n 36) and cranberry-treated group (n 20). After consuming reduced-energy cranberry juice (0·7 litres/d) containing 0·4 mg folic acid for 60 d, the cranberry-treated group showed an increase in adiponectin (P= 0·010) and folic acid (P= 0·033) and a decrease in homocysteine (P< 0·001) in relation to baseline values and also in comparison with the controls (P< 0·05). There was no significant change in the pro-inflammatory cytokines TNF-α, IL-1 and IL-6. In relation to oxidative stress measurements, decreased (P< 0·05) lipoperoxidation and protein oxidation levels assessed by advanced oxidation protein products were found in the cranberry-treated group when compared with the control group. In conclusion, the consumption of cranberry juice for 60 d was able to improve some cardiovascular risk factors. The present data reinforce the importance of the inverse association between homocysteine and adiponectin and the need for more specifically designed studies on MetS patients.
Accurate characterization of stellar populations is of prime importance to correctly understand the formation and evolution process of our Galaxy. The field of asteroseismology has been particularly successful in such an endeavor providing fundamental parameters for large samples of stars in different evolutionary phases. We present our results on determinations of masses, radii, and distances of stars in the CoRoT and Kepler fields, showing that we can map and date different regions of the galactic disk and distinguish gradients in the distribution of stellar properties at different heights. We further review how asteroseismic determinations can produce a unique set of constraints, including ages, outside the solar neighborhood for galactic chemical evolution models.
Chronic inflammatory bowel disease is characterised by an up-regulation of the synthesis and release of a variety of pro-inflammatory mediators leading to excessive tissue injury. Flavonoids are able to inhibit enzymes and/or due to their antioxidant properties regulate the immune response. The goal of the present study was to evaluate the mechanisms of action of phenolic compounds present in grape juice on 2,4,6-trinitrobenzene sulphonic acid (TNBS)-induced colitis. A total of forty-one male Wistar rats were randomised into seven groups: negative control group; TNBS non-treated induced colitis; 2 % grape juice control group; 1 % grape juice 24 h after TNBS colitis induction; 1 % grape juice on day 7 after colitis induction; 2 % grape juice 24 h after colitis induction; 2 % grape juice on day 7 after colitis induction. The 1 % grape juice-treated induced colitis group showed marked clinical improvement when compared with the TNBS-induced colitis group. Rats that received 1 % grape juice, on day 7 after colitis induction, presented reduced intensity of macroscopic and histological scores. Statistically significant differences (P< 0·05) of TNF-α and inducible NO synthase mRNA expression were detected in the groups treated with grape juice at the 1 % dose after inducing experimental colitis when compared with the TNBS group. Grape juice reduced the noxious effects induced by colitis caused by TNBS, especially at the 1 % dose.
An increasing focus on legislation, policy and guidance on the nutritional content of school food has in part been in response to the limited impact of more behavioural or educational approaches. However, there is a risk that a sole focus on policy-level action may lead to neglect of the important contribution that more behavioural approaches can make as components of effective, coordinated, multilevel action to improve the dietary intake of schoolchildren. The current paper aims to highlight the potential importance of viewing alternative approaches as complementary or synergistic, rather than competing.
The socio-ecological and RE-AIM frameworks are used to provide a theoretical rationale and demonstrate the importance of explicitly identifying the interdependence of policies, interventions and contextual structures and processes. School food case study evidence is used to exemplify how understanding and exploiting these interdependencies can maximise impact on dietary outcomes.
Case studies of trials in schools in the UK (South West England and Wales) and Australia (Victoria).
The case studies provide examples to support the hypothesis that the reach, effectiveness, adoption, implementation and maintenance of school food policies and interventions can be maximised by understanding and exploiting the interdependence between levels in the socio-ecological framework.
Rather than being seen as competing alternatives, diverse approaches to improving the diets of schoolchildren should be considered in terms of their potential to be complementary and synergistic, acting at multiple levels to improve acceptability, fidelity, effectiveness and sustainability.