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The morphological study of architectural features, the building arrangement within urban spaces, and multiscalar variation are critical for understanding urbanism as a process. Building types and architectural typologies form the foundational blocks of urban morphology and are essential for identifying architectural patterning. We use a process-typological approach to present an architectural typology from the ancient Purépecha (Tarascan) city of Angamuco, located in the Lake Pátzcuaro Basin, Michoacán, Mexico. Using archaeological survey, lidar analysis, and excavation, we analyze building foundations from houses and public structures; storage facilities; monumental architecture such as pyramids, altars, and public buildings; and landscape features such as plazas, roads, terraces, and raised roadways locally known as huatziri. Our typology enhances understanding of the dense urban environment of this important prehispanic city during and after the formation of the Purépecha Empire.
A national need is to prepare for and respond to accidental or intentional disasters categorized as chemical, biological, radiological, nuclear, or explosive (CBRNE). These incidents require specific subject-matter expertise, yet have commonalities. We identify 7 core elements comprising CBRNE science that require integration for effective preparedness planning and public health and medical response and recovery. These core elements are (1) basic and clinical sciences, (2) modeling and systems management, (3) planning, (4) response and incident management, (5) recovery and resilience, (6) lessons learned, and (7) continuous improvement. A key feature is the ability of relevant subject matter experts to integrate information into response operations. We propose the CBRNE medical operations science support expert as a professional who (1) understands that CBRNE incidents require an integrated systems approach, (2) understands the key functions and contributions of CBRNE science practitioners, (3) helps direct strategic and tactical CBRNE planning and responses through first-hand experience, and (4) provides advice to senior decision-makers managing response activities. Recognition of both CBRNE science as a distinct competency and the establishment of the CBRNE medical operations science support expert informs the public of the enormous progress made, broadcasts opportunities for new talent, and enhances the sophistication and analytic expertise of senior managers planning for and responding to CBRNE incidents.
Developing previous work on charismatic leadership by Boas Shamir and Ken, we investigate the contention that followers of charismatic leaders have an emotional connection with that leader in the form of a ‘sense of belonging’ and links to community. We, therefore, investigate whether there is any evidence of a sense of belonging when people describe those they judge to be charismatic. Using a mixed-methods aesthetic narrative approach, we are able to supply empirical support for the existence of such a relationship and to extend the findings of previous studies by incorporating the connection that the leader has with the community, in general, as an important factor in the leader–follower relationship.
OBJECTIVES/SPECIFIC AIMS: Brown adipose tissue (BAT) increases energy expenditure by dissipating chemical energy as heat. The combustion of glucose and lipids produces beneficial metabolic effects and renders BAT an attractive target to battle obesity and associated diseases. The majority of adults do not display active BAT on positron emission tomography (PET) without prior cold exposure. Interestingly, a fraction of individuals with BAT positive PET scans exhibits excessive BAT (eBAT) activity, indicating a possible underlying genetic contributor. We aim to identify genetic determinants of BAT activity by studying individuals with eBAT activity using next-generation sequencing. A cellular model will be used to validate variants and perform in-depth pathway analysis. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: We performed a retrospective review of PET scans over a period of 12 months in patients presenting with suspected or diagnosed cancer (n=20,348). The distribution of BAT positive individuals (n=1251) was used to implement a threshold to define eBAT activity. Samples from prospectively recruited individuals with BAT activity above the threshold will undergo whole exome sequencing. Variants associated with eBAT activity will be engineered into an immortalized BAT cell line using CRISPR to validate results and perform in-depth pathway analysis. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: We expect to identify genetic variants associated with eBAT. Studying the effects of these variants on thermogenesis followed by in-depth pathway analysis in genetically engineered cellular and mouse models may enable us to find new regulators of BAT activity. These findings may eventually contribute to the development of new drugs targeting obesity and its sequelae. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF IMPACT: The contribution of genetic factors to individual BAT activity is currently unknown. Identifying individuals with eBAT on PET scans and studying the underlying genetic determinants may provide the foundation for the discovery of new pathways for BAT activation.
One of the most noted developments in international law over the past twenty years is the proliferation of international courts and tribunals. They decide who has the right to exploit natural resources, define the scope of human rights, delimit international boundaries and determine when the use of force is prohibited. As the number and influence of international courts grow, so too do challenges to their legitimacy. This volume provides new interdisciplinary insights into international courts' legitimacy: what drives and undermines the legitimacy of these bodies? How do drivers change depending on the court concerned? What is the link between legitimacy, democracy, effectiveness and justice? Top international experts analyse legitimacy for specific international courts, as well as the links between legitimacy and cross-cutting themes. Failure to understand and respond to legitimacy concerns can endanger both the courts and the law they interpret and apply.
The paper addresses the construction of a non spurious mixed spectral finite element (FE) method to problems in the field of computational aeroacoustics. Based on a computational scheme for the conservation equations of linear acoustics, the extension towards convected wave propagation is investigated. In aeroacoustic applications, the mean flow effects can have a significant impact on the generated sound field even for smaller Mach numbers. For those convective terms, the initial spectral FE discretization leads to non-physical, spurious solutions. Therefore, a regularization procedure is proposed and qualitatively investigated by means of discrete eigenvalues analysis of the discrete operator in space. A study of convergence and an application of the proposed scheme to simulate the flow induced sound generation in the process of human phonation underlines stability and validity.
To examine the characteristics of supporters and opponents of a sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) tax and to identify pro-tax messages that resonate with the public.
A survey was administered by telephone in February 2013 to assess public opinion about a penny-per-ounce tax on SSB. Support was also examined for SSB consumption reduction and pro-tax messages. Individual characteristics including sociodemographics, political affiliation, SSB consumption behaviours and beliefs were explored as predictors of support using logistic regression.
A representative sample of voters was recruited from a Mid-Atlantic US state.
The sample included 1000 registered voters.
Findings indicate considerable support (50 %) for an SSB tax. Support was stronger among Democrats, those who believe SSB are a major cause of childhood obesity and those who believe childhood obesity warrants a societal intervention. Belief that a tax would be effective in lowering obesity rates was associated with support for the tax and pro-tax messages. Respondents reporting that a health-care provider had recommended they lose weight were less convinced by pro-tax messages. Women, Independents and those concerned about childhood obesity were more convinced by the SSB reduction messages. Overall, the most popular messages focused on the importance of reducing consumption among children without mentioning the tax.
Understanding who supports and opposes SSB tax measures can assist advocates in developing strategies to maximize support for this type of intervention. Messages that focus on the effect of consumption on children may be useful in framing the discussion around SSB tax proposals.
In the last decades, most works in the literature have been devoted to study argumentation formalisms that focus on a defeat relation among arguments. Recently, the study of a support relation between arguments regained attention among researchers; the bulk of the research has been centered on the study of support within the context of abstract argumentation by considering support as an explicit interaction between arguments. However, there exist other approaches that take support into account in a different setting. This article surveys several interpretations of the notion of support as proposed in the literature, such as deductive support, necessary support, evidential support, subargument, and backing, among others. The aim is to provide a comprehensive study where similarities and differences among these interpretations are highlighted, as well as discuss how they are addressed by different argumentation formalisms.
An agricultural facility aimed at sustainable production of crops in arid environments was built and tested in Hatzeva, Israel. The facility relies on solar-powered desalination with nanofiltration membranes to treat the local brackish water (EC=2.32 dS m−1) and produce high-quality irrigation water (EC=0.71 dS m−1). Red beet, a salt-tolerant crop, was grown with the concentrate stream (EC=4.73 dS m−1), eliminating the need for concentrate disposal and with potential net economic benefits. Agricultural experiments with variable irrigation water quality, application rate, and four staple crops (potato, maize, millet and sorghum) were conducted over two growing seasons between September 2010 and June 2011. The desalination plant operated at low pressure (4.3 bar) and energy consumption (1.37 kWh m−3) and with little maintenance over the entire study period. The results of the agricultural experiments consistently showed that irrigation with desalinated water promoted more efficient use of resources such as water and inorganic fertilizers. A reduction of 25% in the irrigation rate and use of fertilizers compared with best-practice guidelines was achieved with desalinated water, with no detectable detrimental effect on the marketable yield. On the contrary, a statistically significant yield increase was observed for sorghum (+10%). An increase in water productivity with desalinated water was observed for all four staple crops.
This chapter describes a set of new directions in the understanding of how poverty and poverty-related individual and environmental risks influence children and families. It presents the definitions of poverty and of the environment, and discusses new and emerging multidiscipline research on the links between poverty and child and family outcomes with an emphasis on mechanisms. The chapter summarizes the current state of the evidence emerging from the basic sciences (e.g., neuroscience), psychology, sociology, and economics. It outlines the innovations in prevention and intervention efforts both to change poverty itself and to interrupt the links between poverty and poor child and family outcomes. Some of the most innovative poverty reduction or alleviation interventions are place- or setting-based, seeking to infuse entire communities or settings with resources meant to reduce the prevalence or impact of one or more poverty-related risks.