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Patients suffering from an out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) associated with an initial shockable rhythm have a better prognosis than their counterparts. The implications of recurrent or refractory malignant arrhythmia in such context remain unclear. The objective of this study is to evaluate the association between the number of prehospital shocks delivered and survival to hospital discharge among patients in OHCA.
This cohort study included adult patients with an initial shockable rhythm over a 5-year period from a registry of OHCA in Montreal, Canada. The relationship between the number of prehospital shocks delivered and survival to discharge was described using dynamic probabilities. The association between the number of prehospital shocks delivered and survival to discharge was assessed using multivariable logistic regression.
A total of 1,788 patients (78% male with a mean age of 64 years) were included in this analysis, of whom 536 (30%) received treatments from an advanced care paramedic. A third of the cohort (583 patients, 33%) survived to hospital discharge. The probability of survival was highest with the first shock (33% [95% confidence interval 30%-35%]), but decreased to 8% (95% confidence interval 4%-13%) following nine shocks. A higher number of prehospital shocks was independently associated with lower odds of survival (adjusted odds ratio=0.88 [95% confidence interval 0.85-0.92], p < 0.001).
Survival remains possible even after a high number of shocks for patients suffering from an OHCA with an initial shockable rhythm. However, requiring more shocks is independently associated with worse survival.
Pulmonary edema (PE) can occur in the early or late period following subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). The incidence of each type of PE is unknown and the association with ventricular dysfunction, both systolic and diastolic, has not been described.
Retrospective chart review of 178 consecutive patients with SAH surgically treated over a three-year period. Patients with pulmonary edema diagnosed by a radiologist were included. Early onset SAH was defined as occurring within 12 hours. Cardiac function at the time of the PE was analyzed using hemodynamic and echocardiographic criteria of systolic and diastolic dysfunction. Pulmonary edema was observed in 42 patients (28.8%) and was more often delayed (89.4%). Evidence of cardiac involvement during PE varied between 40 to 100%.
Results and conclusions:
Pulmonary edema occurs in 28.8% of patients after SAH, and is most commonly delayed. Cardiac dysfunction, both systolic and diastolic, is commonly observed during SAH and could contribute to the genesis of PE after SAH.
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