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Several studies on the effect of physical exercise on activities of daily living (ADL) for people with dementia exist; yet, data concerning the specific context of acute psychiatric hospitals remain scant. This study measured the effect of a physical exercise program on ADL scores in patients with moderate to severe dementia hospitalized in an acute psychiatric ward.
A multicenter clinical trial was conducted in five Swiss and Belgian psychiatric hospitals. Participants were randomly allocated to either an experimental group (EG) or a control group (CG). Members of the EG received 20 physical exercise sessions (strengthening, balance, and walking) over a four-week period while members of the CG participated in social interaction sessions of equivalent duration and frequency, but without physical exercise. The effect of exercise on ADL was measured by comparing scores of the Barthel Index and the Functional Independence Measure in the EG and CG before and after the intervention, and two weeks later.
Hundred and sixty patients completed the program. Characteristics of participants of both groups were similar at the inception of the study. The mean ADL score of EG decreased slightly over time, whereas that of the CG significantly decreased compared to initial scores. Overall differences between groups were not significant; however, significant differences were found for mobility-related items.
ADL scores in elderly with moderate to severe dementia deteriorate during acute psychiatric hospitalization. An exercise program delays the loss of mobility but does not have a significant impact on overall ADL scores.
To assess whether Swiss residents aged 15–24 years follow current nutritional guidelines and whether differences exist according to gender and weight status.
Cross-sectional national survey.
The 1786 participants (48·4 % women) were divided into overweight, normal weight and underweight. We used traditional BMI cut-offs for people ≥18 years of age (underweight = BMI < 18·5 kg/m2, normal weight = BMI ≥ 18·5 kg/m2 and <25 kg/m2, overweight = BMI ≥ 25 kg/m2) and age- and gender-appropriate tables for people aged <18 years, with BMI calculated from self-reported weight and height. We performed bivariate analyses by gender, and then bivariate and multivariate analyses comparing overweight to normal weight people (excluding underweight, n 129, 71·6 % women) regarding adherence to recommendations for fruit, vegetables, meat, fish and dairy products; physical activity; attitude towards body weight; depression, smoking and alcohol consumption.
Overall, adherence to nutritional guidelines was low, particularly for vegetables and dairy products. Women had a higher adherence than men except for fish and dairy products. In the multivariate analyses, overweight women had a lower vegetable intake, were less satisfied with body weight and had more often been on a diet, whereas overweight men were less satisfied with body weight and wanted to lose weight more often than their normal weight peers. There were no significant differences for physical activity.
Overweight prevention programmes should target youth specifically by gender and promote an appropriate self-perception. Overweight women should be encouraged to eat more vegetables and men to be more sensitised on healthy food. Further research is needed to assess how to make nutritional guidelines more adaptable to young people’s daily life.
To investigate scanpath abnormalities during the encoding of static stimuli in schizophrenia and their interaction with visuospatial working memory (VSWM) dysfunction.
Outpatients with schizophrenia and control subjects were asked to encode a static pattern for subsequent recognition after a short delay. We measured the number of correct and incorrect choices. We also assessed the number and the distribution of fixations, the scanning time in specific regions of interest (ROIs) and the head movements during the encoding of the stimuli. The distributions of fixations and scanning time in definite ROIs during the discrimination of the correct pattern from the foils were also measured.
Patients recognised fewer correct patterns than controls. Correct trials in patients were characterised by a specific exploration of the central part of the stimulus during its presentation, whereas this feature was absent in incorrect trials. However, the scanning time and the numbers of fixations and head movements during encoding were similar in both groups and unrelated to recognition accuracy. In both groups, correct trials were associated with a selective exploration of the correct pattern amongst the six possibilities during recognition. Furthermore, patients gave more attention to incorrect patterns with a leftmost element identical to that of the correct response and also those approximating its global structure.
Patients showed a VSWM deficit independent of oculomotor dysfunctions and head movements during encoding. Patients’ correct trials were related to specific scanning during encoding and discrimination phases. Analysis of these patterns suggests that patients try to compensate for reduced VSWM ability by using specific encoding strategies.
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