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The aim of the current study was to identify and describe the meal and snack patterns (breakfast, mid-morning snack, lunch, mid-afternoon snack, dinner and evening snack) of public schoolchildren.
Cross-sectional study. Information on the previous day’s food intake was obtained through the Web-CAAFE (Food Intake and Physical Activity of Schoolchildren), an interactive questionnaire, which divides daily food consumption into three meals (breakfast, lunch and dinner) and three snacks (mid-morning, mid-afternoon and evening). Each meal contains thirty-one food items and the schoolchildren clicked on the food items consumed in each meal. Factor analysis was used to identify meal and snack patterns. The descriptions of the dietary patterns (DP) were based on food items with factor loads ≥ 0·30 that were considered representative of each DP.
Schoolchildren, Florianopolis, Brazil.
Children (n 1074) aged 7–13 years.
Lunch was the most consumed meal (96·0 %), followed by dinner (86·4 %), breakfast (85·3 %) and mid-afternoon snack (81·7 %). Four DP were identified for breakfast, mid-morning snack, lunch, dinner and evening snack, and three for mid-afternoon snack. Breakfast, lunch and dinner patterns included traditional Brazilian foods. DP consisting of fast foods and sugary beverages were also observed, mainly for the evening snack.
The results of the current study provide important information regarding the meal and snack patterns of schoolchildren to guide the development of nutrition interventions in public health.
Background: Although guidelines recommend the use of chlorhexidine gluconate (CHG) for hand hygiene (HH), the impact of its routine use on antimicrobial resistance is not clear. Objective: To analyze the impact on the CHG susceptibility among isolates obtained from hands of HCW during its routine use for HH. Methods: We conducted a crossover study at 4 medical-surgical wards of a tertiary-care hospital in São Paulo, Brazil. In 2 units (intervention group), we established routine use of CHG for HH. For the other 2 units (control group), regular soap was provided. The availability of alcohol formulation for HH was not changed during the study. Every 4 months we swapped the units, ie, those using CHG changed for regular soap and vice versa. At baseline, we cultured the hands of HCWs. Only nursing staff hands were investigated. For hand culturing, HCWs placed their hands inside a sterile bag containing a solution of phosphate-buffered saline, Tween 80, and sodium thiosulfate. After the solution incubated overnight, it was inoculated onto brain-heart infusion. Next, it was plated on McConkey and Mannitol agar. MALDI-TOF was used for identification. Agar dilution was performed for Staphylococcus spp. We selected all Staphylococcus spp with MIC ≥ 8 and performed inhibition of efflux pump test. For isolates that showed a decrease of 2 dilutions, we searched the gene qacA/B by polymerase chain reaction. Results: We obtained 262 samples from HCW hands yielding 428 isolates. The most frequent genera were Staphylococcus spp (58%), Acinetobacter spp (8%), Enterobacter spp (8%), Stenotrophomonas spp (5%), Klebsiella spp (4%), Pseudomonas spp (3%), and others (14%). Staphylococcus spp were less frequent in the intervention compared to control group (43% vs 61%; OR, 0.48; 95% CI, 0.29–0.69; P = .005). Among all Staphylococcus spp, the proportion of chlorhexidine resistance (RCHG; MIC ≥ 8) was 12%. All resistant isolates recovered susceptibility after inoculation with pump-efflux inhibitor. For pump-inhibited isolates, 53% had the gene qacA/B amplified by PCR. We did not investigate RCHG among gram-negative isolates. There was a nonsignificant increase in Staphylococcus spp RCHG in the intervention group (4% to 6%; P = .90). Healthcare-acquired infection rates did not change significantly during the intervention. The consumption of CHG increased from 7.3 to 13.9 mL per patient day. Conclusions: We did not detect a significant difference in RCHG during the routine use of CHG for HH, although we observed increasing resistance. Further investigation is needed to clarify other reasons for increasing MIC to CHG.
Reading is one of the most important milestones a child achieves throughout development. Above the letter level, the syllable has been shown to play a relevant role at early stages of visual word recognition in adult skilled readers. However, studies aiming to examine when, during reading acquisition, the syllable emerges as a functional sublexical unit are scarce, and the studies conducted so far have led to inconsistent results. In this work, beginning and intermediate European-Portuguese (EP) developing readers performed a sandwich masked lexical decision task in which CV (e.g., RU.MOR[rumour]) and CVC (e.g., CIS.NE[swan]) first-syllable EP words were preceded either by syllable congruent (e.g., rum.ba-RU.MOR, cis.ra-CIS.NE), syllable incongruent (e.g., rum.ba-RU.MOR, ci.ser-CIS.NE), unrelated (e.g., va.cra-RU.MOR, zar.vo-CIS.NE) pseudowords primes, or identity (e.g., ru.mour-RU.MOUR, cis.ne-CIS.NE) primes. Results showed reliable syllable effects only for intermediate readers and for CV and CVC words alike. Findings are discussed attending to current models of visual word recognition.
To analyse the extent and nature of food and beverage advertising on the three major Brazilian free-to-air television (TV) channels.
Cross-sectional study. A protocol developed for the International Network for Food and Obesity/Non-Communicable Diseases Research, Monitoring and Action Support was applied for data collection. A total of 432 h of TV programming was recorded from 06.00 to 24.00 hours, for eight non-consecutive and randomly selected days, in April 2018. All TV advertisements (ads) were analysed, and food-related ads were classified according to the NOVA classification system. Descriptive analyses were used to describe the number and type of ads, food categories and the distribution of ads throughout the day and time of the day.
The three most popular free-to-air channels on Brazilian TV.
The study did not involve human subjects.
In total, 14·2 % (n 1156 out of 7991) of ads were food related (858 were specific food items). Approximately 91 % of food items ads included ultra-processed food (UPF) products. The top three most promoted products were soft drinks, alcoholic beverages and fast-food meals. Alcoholic beverage ads were more frequently broadcast in the evening.
The high risk of exposure of the Brazilian population to UPF ads should be considered a public health concern given the impact of unhealthy food advertising on people’s food choices and health.
The purpose of the present study was to investigate the factor structure of the Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II) in pregnancy and postpartum. Women were asked to fill in the BDI-II in their last trimester of pregnancy and at 3 months after delivery. A total of 331 pregnant women, with a mean age of 29.7 years (SD = 4.6), and 354 mothers, aged 30.6 years (SD = 4.6 years), answered the BDI-II. The first group was mainly nulliparas (65.6%) and the second group was mostly primiparas (57.4%). Factor analyses with principal components solution and varimax rotation were performed. Based on the scree test of Cattell a 2-factor solution and a 3-factor solution were explored. The 2-factor solution was identical in pregnancy and postpartum. Items loading in the Cognitive–Affective factor and in the Somatic–Anxiety factor were almost the same, though the Cognitive–Affective factor explained more of the BDI-II total variance in pregnancy, whereas in postpartum both factors explained similar total variances. The 3-factor solution of the BDI-II in pregnancy and postpartum slightly diverged. Besides the Cognitive–Affective and the Somatic–Anxiety factors, a third factor, Fatigue, was obtained in pregnancy while Guilt was the third factor identified in postpartum. This study reveals that the BDI-II 3-factor solution might be more appropriate to assess depressive symptoms in pregnancy and postpartum.
Both transposition of the great arteries (TGA) previously submitted to a Senning/Mustard procedure and congenitally corrected TGA (cc-TGA) have the systemic circulation supported by the morphological right ventricle, thereby rendering these patients to heart failure events risk. The aim of this study was to evaluate cardiopulmonary exercise test parameters for stratifying the risk of heart failure events in TGA patients.
Retrospective evaluation of adult TGA patients with systemic circulation supported by the morphological right ventricle submitted to cardiopulmonary exercise test in a tertiary centre. Patients were followed up for at least 1 year for the primary endpoint of cardiac death or heart failure hospitalisation. Several cardiopulmonary exercise test parameters were analysed as potential predictors of the combined endpoint and their predictive power were compared (area under the curve).
Cardiopulmonary exercise test was performed in 44 TGA patients (8 cc-TGA), with a mean age of 35.1 ± 8.4 years. The primary endpoint was reached by 10 (22.7%) patients, with a mean follow-up of 36.7 ± 26.8 months. Heart rate at anaerobic threshold had the highest area under the curve value (0.864), followed by peak oxygen consumption (pVO2) (0.838). Heart rate at anaerobic threshold ≤95 bpm and pVO2 ≤20 ml/kg/min had a sensitivity of 87.5 and 80.0% and a specificity of 82.4 and 76.5%, respectively, for the primary outcome.
Heart rate at anaerobic threshold ≤95 bpm had the highest predictive power of all cardiopulmonary exercise test parameters analysed for heart failure events in TGA patients with systemic circulation supported by the morphological right ventricle.
Dignity therapy (DT) is well established in adult populations, and it is likely that it could benefit younger people. This study aimed to adapt the adult Portuguese DT question framework for adolescents (DT-QF-Adol) (ages 10–18).
Five stages were followed: (1) the Portuguese DT-QF for adults was adapted for adolescents with the original author's collaboration, (2) an expert committee provided feedback on the adapted version, (3) an initial consensus version of the DT-QF-Adol was created, (4) expert committee consult affirmed final consensus, and (5) validation stage with a sample of 17 adolescents followed in ambulatory psychology clinic.
DT's original author endorsed the final Portuguese DT-QF-Adol, reinforcing that it captures the fundamental dimensions of DT. There was 100% agreement on the final consensus version and defined age group (10–18 years old). Twenty adolescents were invited to participate, and 17 were included after informed consent was obtained; 53% were female. The average age was 12.7 years. The interviewed adolescents reported that the DT-QF-Adol was clear, and they did not identify any ambiguity or difficulty in answering any of the questions. They assumed that this information could positively affect the way parents and friends see and cared for them, permitting others to understand their concerns and preferences. Participants felt that the DT-QF-Adol could be a good starting point for a conversation with their loved ones. Although they did not consider vital for health professionals to access their answers, they strongly felt that the DT-QF-Adol might be essential to sick adolescents and they would recommend it to others.
Significance of results
We developed a DT-QF of nine questions for Portuguese adolescents (DT-QF-Adol), coined Protocolo de Perguntas da Terapia da Dignidade para Adolescentes — 10–18 anos. This tool can potentially be considered a good addition for pediatric palliative care.
The detonation wave structure is analysed in a binary mixture undergoing a reversible chemical reaction represented by
. It is assumed that the flow satisfies the proper basic assumptions of the Zel’dovich–von Neumann–Döring (ZND) detonation model, namely the flow is one-dimensional and the shock is represented by a jump discontinuity, but the assumption of local thermodynamic equilibrium is disregarded. This allows us to deeply investigate the coupling between the detonation structure of overdriven detonations and its chemical kinetics. The thermodynamic non-equilibrium effects are taken into account in the mathematical description, using the model of a multi-temperature mixture developed within extended thermodynamics, which has been proved to be consistent with a kinetic theory approach. The reaction rate is then enriched with terms that take into account the temperatures of the constituents. The results show that the temperature difference between components within the detonation wave structure, which describes thermodynamic non-equilibrium, is driven by the chemical reaction. Numerical computations confirm the existence of non-monotonic profiles in the reaction zone of overdriven detonations which are sensitive to changes in the activation energy and reaction heat.
In the framework of coupled cell systems, a coupled cell network describes graphically the dynamical dependencies between individual dynamical systems, the cells. The fundamental network of a network reveals the hidden symmetries of that network. Subspaces defined by equalities of coordinates which are flow-invariant for any coupled cell system consistent with a network structure are called the network synchrony subspaces. Moreover, for every synchrony subspace, each network admissible system restricted to that subspace is a dynamical system consistent with a smaller network called a quotient network. We characterize networks such that: the network is a subnetwork of its fundamental network, and the network is a fundamental network. Moreover, we prove that the fundamental network construction preserves the quotient relation and it transforms the subnetwork relation into the quotient relation. The size of cycles in a network and the distance of a cell to a cycle are two important properties concerning the description of the network architecture. In this paper, we relate these two architectural properties in a network and its fundamental network.
The aim of this study is to evaluate the potential use of titanium foil coated with sputtered silver and copper films as a novel brazing filler for joining TiAl alloys. For this purpose, a detailed microstructural characterization of the resulting brazing interfaces was carried out. The development of brazing fillers that allow the joining of TiAl alloys without compromising the service temperature is a fruitful prospect. Brazing experiments were performed in a vacuum at 900, 950, and 980°C, with a dwell time of 30 min. Microstructural characterization reveals that brazing joints can be obtained successfully at 950 and 980°C. The interface consists of a large central region of α-Ti with an amount of Al and Ti–Ag compound and thin layers, mainly composed of intermetallic compounds, formed close to the base material. A novel brazing filler consisting of Ti foil coated with sputtered Ag and Cu films inhibits the extensive formation of soft (Ag) zones or coarse brittle Ti–Al–(Cu,Ni) particles. Hence, the need for post-brazing heat treatments for the joining of TiAl alloys was avoided.
Pictures are complex stimuli that require a careful control of several characteristics and attributes standardized for different languages. In this work we present for the first time European Portuguese (EP) norms for name agreement, concept familiarity, subjective frequency and visual complexity for a new set of 150 colored pictures. These pictures were selected to represent exemplars of the most used semantic categories in research and to depict objects which, though familiar to the participants, were rarely used in daily life, which makes them particularly prone to speech failures such as tip-of-the-tongue (TOT) states. Norms were collected from 640 EP native speakers that rated each picture in the four variables through a web-survey procedure. Results showed, as expected, that a large number of pictures in the dataset elicited a TOT response, and additionally that the ratings obtained in each of the dimensions are in line with those observed in other pictorial datasets. Norms can be freely downloaded at https://www.psi.uminho.pt/en/Research/Psycholinguistics/Pages/Databases.aspx
One of the Leishmania species known to be non-infective to humans is Leishmania (Mundinia) enriettii whose vertebrate host is the guinea pig Cavia porcellus. It is a good model for cutaneous leishmaniasis, chemotherapeutic and molecular studies. In the last years, an increased interest has emerged concerning the L. (Mundinia) subgenus after the finding of Leishmania (M.) macropodum in Australia and with the description of other new/putative species such as L. (M.) martiniquensis and ‘L. (M.) siamensis’. This review focused on histopathology, glycoconjugates and innate immunity. The presence of Leishmania RNA virus and shedding of extracellular vesicles by the parasite were also evaluated.
Anemia is a major problem, frequently resulting from iron deficiency (1). Guidelines recommend the administration of intravenous (IV) iron, leaving blood transfusions for critical patients due to the potential impact in length of stay (LOS) and mortality (2,3). We aimed to characterize IV iron sucrose utilization and health resource utilization in anemic patients.
This is a retrospective ongoing cohort study. Patient records from a general Portuguese Hospital with an administration of iron sucrose in 2014–2015 were reviewed. Adult anemic patients with at least one hemoglobin (Hb) evaluation before and after the administration of IV iron were included. Endpoints assessed were: Hb level (baseline, 4 and 8 weeks after), anemia correction rate at weeks 4 and 8, blood transfusions, length of stay (LOS), rate of readmissions (<30 days) and inpatient mortality. Statistical analysis included non-parametric and chi-square tests to assess differences between groups and a logistic regression model, using a 5 percent significance level.
Data was collected for 401 patients (63.1 percent female; mean age Standard Deviation, SD: 62.6 (21.7) years) and 431 IV iron sucrose administration episodes. Mean cumulative iron dose was 679.5 mg. Baseline Hb level was 84.5 g/l and increased to 94.3 g/l (week 4) and to 103.0 g/l (week 8). Blood transfusions were performed in 53.8 percent of the episodes. Overall 157 (36.4 percent) episodes had a >20 g/l increase in Hb level. Blood transfusions were associated with a higher proportion of Hb level increase >20 g/l (44.0 percent versus 27.9 percent, p<.001). The overall mean LOS was 15.3 days, although episodes with transfusions had a significantly longer duration (17.5 days versus 12.7 days; p<.001). Overall readmission rate was 25.8 percent, with a higher proportion in episodes with blood transfusions (29.3 percent versus 21.6 percent). A total of 36 patients (9.0 percent) died at the hospital before discharge. Transfusions performed during or after IV iron administration increased 3.1 times the risk of in-hospital death (95 percent Confidence Interval, CI: 1.3-7.0; p = .008), after adjusting for age and sex.
We observed a high rate of blood transfusions in this cohort treated with intravenous iron sucrose for anemia. Transfusions were associated with substantial burden of resource consumption and in-hospital mortality.
The role of right ventricular longitudinal strain for assessing patients with repaired tetralogy of Fallot is not fully understood. In this study, we aimed to evaluate its relation with other structural and functional parameters in these patients.
Patients followed-up in a grown-up CHD unit, assessed by transthoracic echocardiography, cardiac MRI, and treadmill exercise testing, were retrospectively evaluated. Right ventricular size and function and pulmonary regurgitation severity were assessed by echocardiography and MRI. Right ventricular longitudinal strain was evaluated in the four-chamber view using the standard semiautomatic method.
In total, 42 patients were included (61% male, 32±8 years). The mean right ventricular longitudinal strain was −16.2±3.7%, and the right ventricular ejection fraction, measured by MRI, was 42.9±7.2%. Longitudinal strain showed linear correlation with tricuspid annular systolic excursion (r=−0.40) and right ventricular ejection fraction (r=−0.45) (all p<0.05), which in turn showed linear correlation with right ventricular fractional area change (r=0.50), pulmonary regurgitation colour length (r=0.35), right ventricular end-systolic volume (r=−0.60), and left ventricular ejection fraction (r=0.36) (all p<0.05). Longitudinal strain (β=−0.72, 95% confidence interval −1.41, −0.15) and left ventricular ejection fraction (β=0.39, 95% confidence interval 0.11, 0.67) were independently associated with right ventricular ejection fraction. The best threshold of longitudinal strain for predicting a right ventricular ejection fraction of <40% was −17.0%.
Right ventricular longitudinal strain is a powerful method for evaluating patients with tetralogy of Fallot. It correlated with echocardiographic right ventricular function parameters and was independently associated with right ventricular ejection fraction derived by MRI.
The aim of the present work was to investigate birefringence and morphology of the secretory-stage enamel organic extracellular matrix (EOECM), and structural and mechanical properties of mature enamel of upper incisors from adult rats that had been treated with pamidronate disodium (0.5 mg/kg/week for 56 days), using transmitted polarizing and bright-field light microscopies (TPLM and BFLM), energy-dispersive X-ray (EDX) analysis, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and microhardness testing. BFLM showed no morphological changes of the EOECM in pamidronate and control groups, but TPLM revealed a statistically significant reduction in optical retardation values of birefringence brightness of pamidronate-treated rats when compared with control animals (p<0.01). EDX analysis showed that pamidronate-induced statistically significant decrease in phosphorus’ quantity in outer mature enamel (p<0.01) and an increase in the calcium/phosphorus ratio in that structure (p<0.05). Pamidronate did not induce ultra-structural alterations in mature enamel as revealed by SEM and did not cause a reduction in its microhardness (p>0.05). The present study indicates that pamidronate can affect birefringence of the secretory-stage EOECM, which does not seem to be associated with significant changes in morphological and/or mechanical properties of mature enamel.
This study explores the role of cognate status, syllable position, and word length in Tip-of-the-Tongue (TOT) states induction and resolution for European Portuguese (EP; L1) – English (L2) bilinguals (and EP monolinguals as control). TOTs were induced using a picture naming task in L1 and L2 followed by a lexical decision task. Here, the first or the last syllable of the target word (or none for control) was embedded in pseudowords (syllabic pseudohomophones) in order to test its effect in TOT resolution. Bilinguals presented more TOTs in L2 than in L1, especially for noncognate words. Longer words showed more TOTs than shorter words, though only in L1. TOT resolution was higher for cognates in L2 and higher when primed by the first than by the last syllable. Finally, longer cognates showed more TOT resolution than shorter cognates, irrespective of the language. Results are discussed in light of TOT's main hypothesis.
Soybean oil (SBO) is rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids (FA) and rumen bypass of SBO can contribute to increase the polyunsaturated FA proportion in milk fat. Citrus pulp (CPP) is a source of antioxidants but there is little information on the effects of CP administration on milk properties. This study was performed to determine the role of rumen microorganisms in the transfer of antioxidants from CPP into milk when cows receive SBO as a source of polyunsaturated FA. Four ruminally fistulated lactating Holstein cows were assigned to a 4 × 4 Latin square design with a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement of treatments: (1) SBO administered in the rumen; (2) SBO infused in the abomasum; (3) SBO + CPP administered in the rumen; and (4) SBO + CPP infused in the abomasum. Product and site of administration had no effect on yield of milk components. Concentrations of total polyphenols and flavonoids, reducing power and production of conjugated diene (CD) hydroperoxides in milk were not affected by products, but infusion in the abomasum compared with administration in the rumen increased production of CD. Milk fat FA profile was not affected by products. However, cows infused in the abomasum compared with those administered in the rumen showed lower proportions of short-chain and monounsaturated FA and higher proportions of polyunsaturated, omega 3 and omega 6 FA in milk fat, which resulted in enhanced health-promoting index of milk. Administration of SBO and CPP (0·2 + 1·0 kg/d) in the rumen or the abomasum resulted in similar milk antioxidant properties, thus suggesting that the rumen microbes have little involvement in the metabolism of antioxidants from CPP.
The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of heat stress (HS) and methionine supplementation on the markers of stress and on the gene expression levels of uncoupling proteins (UCP), betaine–homocysteine methyltransferase (BHMT), cystathionine β-synthase (CBS), glutathione synthetase (GSS) and glutathione peroxidase 7 (GPx7). Broilers from 1 to 21 d and from 22 to 42 d of age were divided into three treatment groups related to methionine supplementation: without methionine supplementation (MD); recommended level of methionine supplementation (DL1); excess methionine supplementation (DL2). The broilers were either kept at a comfortable thermal temperature or exposed to HS (38°C for 24 h). During the starter period, we observed the effects of the interaction between diet and environment on the gene expression levels of UCP, BHMT and GSS. Higher gene expression levels of UCP and BHMT were observed in broilers that were maintained at thermal comfort conditions and received the MD diet. HS broilers fed the DL1 and DL2 diets had the highest expression level of GSS. The expression levels of the CBS and GPx7 genes were influenced by both the environment and methionine supplementation. During the grower period, the gene expression levels of BHMT, CBS, GSS and GPx7 were affected by the diet × environment interaction. A higher expression level of BHMT was observed in broilers maintained at thermal comfort conditions and on the MD diet. HS induced higher expression levels of CBS, GSS and GPx7 in broilers that received the DL1 and DL2 diets. The present results suggest that under HS conditions, methionine supplementation could mitigate the effects of stress, since methionine contributed to the increased expression levels of genes related to antioxidant activity.
Micro energy-dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectrometry (µ-EDXRF) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) were used to evaluate dentin treated with an etch and rinse adhesive (ER) and a self-etch adhesive (SE). Ten human molars (H) and ten bovine anterior teeth (B) were prepared (exposure of dentin and divided in the middle) and allocated into two different adhesion strategy groups per substrate (n=40). µ-EDXRF data and SEM images were obtained before and after treatment. Untreated dentin of both substrates did not differ in terms of Ca (p<0.1503), P (p<0.2986) or Ca/P ratio (p<0.1400). H-SE and B-SE specimens showed reduced P content (p<0.0001; p<0.0002), while H-ER and B-ER specimens showed reduced Ca and P content (p<0.0001; p<0.0001) when compared with untreated specimens. The Ca/P ratio was significantly higher in H-ER and B-ER specimens than in H-SE and B-SE specimens (p<0.0001; p<0.0080). Untreated dentin showed a homogeneous elemental distribution. However, after adhesive treatments, the surface of the dentin showed an irregular demineralization pattern. The resin tags and adhesive layer were shorter in bovine specimens than in human specimens due to morphological differences.