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A checklist of Lichen-forming, Lichenicolous and Allied Fungi of Ecuador is presented with a total of 2599 species, of which 39 are reported for the first time from the country. The names of three species, Hypotrachyna montufariensis, H. subpartita and Sticta hypoglabra, previously not validly published, are validated. Pertusaria oahuensis, originally introduced by Magnusson as ‘ad interim’, is validated as Lepra oahuensis. The form Leucodermia leucomelos f. albociliata is validated. Two new combinations, Fissurina tectigera and F. timida, are made, and Physcia mobergii is introduced as a replacement name for the illegitimate P. lobulata Moberg non (Flörke) Arnold. In an initial step, the checklist was compiled by reviewing literature records of Ecuadorian lichen biota spanning from the late 19th century to the present day. Subsequently, records were added based on vouchers from 56 collections participating in the Consortium of Lichen Herbaria, a Symbiota-based biodiversity platform with particular focus on, but not exclusive to, North and South America. Symbiota provides sophisticated tools to manage biodiversity data, such as occurrence records, a taxonomic thesaurus, and checklists. The thesaurus keeps track of frequently changing names, distinguishing taxa currently accepted from ones considered synonyms. The software also provides tools to create and manage checklists, with an emphasis on selecting vouchers based on occurrence records that can be verified for identification accuracy. Advantages and limitations of creating checklists in Symbiota versus traditional ways of compiling these lists are discussed. Traditional checklists are well suited to document current knowledge as a ‘snapshot in time’. They are important baselines, frequently used by ecologists and conservation scientists as an established naming convention for citing species reported from a country. Compiling these lists, however, requires an immense effort, only to inadequately address the dynamic nature of scientific discovery. Traditional checklists are thus quickly out of date, particularly in groups with rapidly changing taxonomy, such as lichenized fungi. Especially in megadiverse countries, where new species and new occurrences continue to be discovered, traditional checklists are not easily updated; these lists necessarily fall short of efficiently managing immense data sets, and they rely primarily on secondary evidence (i.e. literature records rather than specimens). Ideally, best practices make use of dynamic database platforms such as Symbiota to assess occurrence records based both on literature citations and voucher specimens. Using modern data management tools comes with a learning curve. Systems like Symbiota are not necessarily intuitive and their functionality can still be improved, especially when handling literature records. However, online biodiversity data platforms have much potential in more efficiently managing and assessing large biodiversity data sets, particularly when investigating the lichen biota of megadiverse countries such as Ecuador.
The lichen species Cladonia angustiloba is characterized by a well-developed primary thallus and narrow squamules which show deep incisions, and the presence of usnic and fumarprotocetraric acids. Morphologically it is similar to C. foliacea and C. convoluta, from which it can be distiguished by the squamule size and morphology. Since similar characters were used to distinguish C. foliacea from C. convoluta which do not represent different lineages, it is necessary to examine the taxonomic status of C. angustiloba by means of DNA sequences. In this study, the species delimitation within the C. foliacea complex was studied by sequencing three loci, ITS rDNA, cox1 and RPB2. The data were analyzed by means of phylogenetic and species delimitation methods (GMYC, PTP, ABGD and BPP). Our results show that none of the three species is monophyletic. Most of the species delimitation methods did not support the current species as evolutionary lineages. Only some of the BPP analyses supported C. angustiloba as a species distinct from C. foliacea and C. convoluta. However, the hypothesis that considers the C. foliacea complex as constituted by a unique species obtained the best Bayes Factor value. Therefore, C. angustiloba and C. convoluta are synonymized with C. foliacea. A new, thoroughly checked synonymy with typifications of the whole C. foliacea complex is presented. An updated survey of the world distribution data is compiled.
Phenotypic characters, either morphological or chemical, have shown to be insufficient to delimit species boundaries in the genus Cladonia. The present study addresses the circumscription of species within the Cladonia cariosa group, examining a number of specimens of the currently accepted taxa Cladonia cariosa, C. symphycarpa, C. acuminata, C. subcariosa and C. latiloba. We employed maximum likelihood and Bayesian methods of phylogenetic reconstructions based on DNA sequences of ITS, rpb2 and ef1α regions. Our results show that the C. cariosa group consists of at least four phylogenetic lineages. It is also shown that each of these lineages is chemically variable, which restricts the taxonomic value of the chemical differences within the group. However, anatomical differences, such as squamule surface and cortex structure, were found to correlate with the distinct lineages found in the phylogenetic analysis. This result confirms the taxonomic value of the cortical surface under SEM, as was found in other lichen groups.
An interesting calicioid lichen has been collected as a consequence of the study that our research group is developing in the Iberian meridional beech forests. One of these is the forest Natural Reserve “Chaparral de Montejo” (Madrid Province), which represents one of the southern biogeographic limits of Fagus sylvatica in the Iberian Peninsula. The geological substratum is Silurian clayey slate. It is located in the Supramediterranean belt of central Spain. Sclerophora peronella has been found for the first time in the Iberian Peninsula and for the third time in southern Europe. The previous records in S Europe are from Calabria (Italy) by Puntillo (1992) and from Corse (France) by Vězda (Lich. Sel. Exs. 828).
The distribution of sixty-six Peltigera species in 230 biogeographic provinces or 40 regions are presented. A hierarchical clustering approach, used to identify clusters of species with similar distribution patterns (floristic elements), resolved four groups made up of Neotropical, Southern Hemisphere, Antarctic and mainly Holarctic species. The Holarctic Kingdom is species rich with the highest number of Peltigera species and also the highest number of endemic species; the Australian and Cape Kingdoms have the lowest number of species and endemics. The species rich provinces are briefly discussed.
Two new species of Mycobilimbia are described from Spain. Mycobilimbia olwacea has a minutely squamulose and olivaceous thalli and dark reddish brown apothecia, colourless inside; it has been found at middle to high altitudes (from 900 to 1750 m), growing on humid tree bases of Pinus nigra and lignum of Quercus pyrenaica. Mycobilimbia parvilobulosa is closely related to M. berengeriana, but differs markedly by its squamulose thalli, with crenate to subdigitiform margins, dark reddish brown excipulum and colourless epithecium. It grows on moss-covered old trunks of fagaceous trees. The new taxa are compared with M. berengeriana, M. hypnorum and M. sanguineoatra and their main distinguishing characters are tabulated.
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