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Disparities exist among Latino smokers with respect to knowledge and access to smoking cessation resources. This study tested the feasibility of using case management (CM) to increase access to pharmacotherapy and quitlines among Latino smokers.
Latino smokers were randomized to CM (n = 40) or standard care (SC, n = 40). All participants received educational materials describing how to utilize pharmacy assistance for cessation pharmacotherapy and connect with quitlines. CM participants received four phone calls from staff to encourage pharmacotherapy and quitline use. At 6-months follow-up, we assessed the utilization of pharmacotherapy and quitline. Additional outcomes included self-reported smoking status and approval for pharmacotherapy assistance.
Using intention-to-treat analysis, CM produced higher utilization than SC of both pharmacotherapy (15.0% versus 2.5%; P = 0.108) and quitlines (12.5% versus 5.0%; P = 0.432), although differences were not statistically significant. Approval for pharmacotherapy assistance programs (20.0% versus 0.0%; P = 0.0005) was significantly higher for CM than SC participants. Self-reported point-prevalence smoking abstinence at 6-months were 20.0% and 17.5% for CM and SC, respectively (P = 0.775).
CM holds promise as an effective intervention to connect Latino smokers to evidence-based cessation treatment.
To assess the prevalence of vitamin D insufficiency and deficiency and its association with cardiometabolic risk factors, controlled by adiposity, in a representative sample of prepubescent children.
Cross-sectional population-based study. Body composition was evaluated by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Anthropometric measures and blood pressure were performed. Laboratory analyses were performed to determine the levels of vitamin D (25-hydroxyitamin D; 25(OH)D), glucose, insulin, serum lipids and intact parathyroid hormone. Dietary intake was assessed by three 24 h recalls.
Viçosa, Minas Gerais, Brazil, 2015.
Representative sample of 378 children aged 8 and 9 years from urban schools.
Inadequate serum concentrations of 25(OH)D were diagnosed in more than half of the children and none of them met the recommended vitamin D intake. After adjusting for confounding factors in the multiple regression analysis, lower prevalence of insulin resistance and hypertriacylglycerolaemia was found in children with serum 25(OH)D levels ≥75 nmol/l (prevalence ratio=0·25; 95 % CI 0·08, 0·85) and ≥50 nmol/l (prevalence ratio=0·61; 95 % CI 0·37, 0·99), respectively. However, after adjusting for different indicators of adiposity, insulin resistance remained independently associated and the association with hypertriacylglycerolaemia was lost after adjusting for central adiposity. The prevalence of vitamin D insufficiency/deficiency was associated with the number of cardiometabolic alterations in children.
The study results showed that prevalence of vitamin D insufficiency/deficiency was high among the children and insulin resistance was the main cardiometabolic alteration associated with this condition, even in a tropical climate country such as Brazil.
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