Mice infected heavily with Schistosoma mansoni cercariae were treated 6 days later with Praziquantel and the parasites studied 1 h post-treatment. Immunofluorescence experiments showed that parasite surface antigens became available for labelling in larvae harvested from Praziquantel-treated mice, but not from untreated mice. Red blood cell antigens acquired from the host were localized on all lung worms studied. The distribution of each set of antigens, as revealed by fluorescence-labelling was, however, quite different. The lungs of heavily infected, drug-treated mice, exhibited severe haemorrhages which occurred in a dose-dependent manner. Fewer haemorrhages were found when heavily infected mice were treated simultaneously with Praziquantel and Aprotinin, a proteinase inhibitor. These results indicate that Praziquantel treatment in vivo induces the exposure of parasite antigens on lung-stage worms and may cause the release of parasite-derived enzymes which induce haemorrhages in the lung tissue of the host.