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The application of clay minerals in therapeutics is becoming important due to their structural and surface physicochemical properties. 5-aminosalicylic acid (5-ASA) is a very common pharmaceutical drug and is used worldwide. The interactions between the 5-ASA molecule and both the aluminol and siloxane surfaces of kaolinite are studied by means of atomistic calculations using force fields based on empirical interatomic potentials and quantum mechanics calculations based on density functional theory. A conformational analysis of 5-ASA has been performed and the anion of 5-ASA was also studied. The calculated adsorption energy values indicate that 5-ASA is likely to be adsorbed on the kaolinite surfaces with greater affinity to the aluminol surface. Hence, kaolinite may be considered as a promising pharmaceutical carrier of 5-ASA.
The aim of the study was to determine the main factors (sociodemographic, anthropometric, lifestyle and health status) associated with high Na excretion in a representative population of Chile.
Na excretion (g/d), a valid marker of Na intake, was determined by urine analysis and Tanaka’s formulas. Blood pressure was measured by trained staff and derived from the mean of three readings recorded after 15 min rest. The associations of Na excretion with blood pressure and the primary correlates of high Na excretion were determined using logistic regression.
Chileans aged ≥15 years.
Participants (n 2913) from the Chilean National Health Survey 2009–2010.
Individuals aged 25 years or over, those who were obese and those who had hypertension, diabetes or metabolic syndrome were more likely to have higher Na excretion. The odds for hypertension increased by 10·2 % per 0·4 g/d increment in Na excretion (OR=1·10; 95 % CI 1·06, 1·14; P < 0·0001). These findings were independent of major confounding factors.
Age, sex, adiposity, sitting behaviours and existing co-morbidities such as diabetes were associated with higher Na excretion levels in the Chilean population. These findings could help policy makers to implement public health strategies tailored towards individuals who are more likely to consume high levels of dietary salt.
The Bipolar Spectrum Diagnostic Scale (BSDS) is widely validated and used as a screening tool for bipolar disorder. However, there is no BSDS validated version for its use in Mexican population. The aim of the present study was to examine the BSDS diagnostic capacity, and to evaluate its criterion validity and internal consistency for its use in Mexican psychiatric patients. We recruited 200 patients who attended the psychiatric outpatient service of a Mental Health Specialized Hospital and were screened for bipolar disorder using BSDS. To determine the cut-off point, sensitivity and specificity, we used the SCID–I diagnosis as the gold standard in 100 participants with bipolar disorder and 100 with major depression. Internal consistency according to Cronbach’s coefficient alpha was .81. The area under ROC curve for the overall discriminability of BSDS against the criterion of SCID–I for bipolar disorder was .90. Finally, a cut-off value of 12 reached the most stable sensitivity and specificity, with predictive powers higher than .80. In conclusion, the properties of the scale including internal consistency, sensitivity and specificity, make of BSDS a valuable instrument for screening bipolar disorder in Mexican psychiatric population.
Polyurethane/cellulose composites were synthesized from castor-oil-derived polyols and isophorone diisocyanate using dibutyltin dilaurate (DBTDL) as the catalyst. Materials were obtained by adding 2% cellulose in the form of either microcrystals (20 μm) or nanocrystals obtained by acid hydrolysis. The aim was to assess the effects of filler particle size and the use of a catalyst on the physicochemical properties and biological response of these composites. The addition of the catalyst was found to be essential to prevent filler aggregations and to enhance the tensile strength and elongation at break. The cellulose particle size influenced the composite properties, as its nanocrystals heighten hydrogen bond interactions between the filler surface and polyurethane domains, improving resistance to hydrolytic degradation. All hybrids retained cell viability, and the addition of DBTDL did not impair their biocompatibility. The samples were prone to calcification, which suggests that they could find application in the development of bioactive materials.
Cognitive deficits are a core feature of early stages in schizophrenia. However, the extent to which antipsychotic (AP) have a deleterious effect on cognitive performance remains under debate. We aim to investigate whether anticholinergic loadings and dose of AP drugs in first episode of psychosis (FEP) in advanced phase of remission are associated with cognitive impairment and the differences between premorbid intellectual quotient (IQ) subgroups.
Two hundred and sixty-six patients participated. The primary outcomes were cognitive dimensions, dopaminergic/anticholinergic load of AP [in chlorpromazine equivalents (Eq-CPZ) and the Anticholinergic Risk Scale (ARS), respectively].
Impairments in processing speed, verbal memory and global cognition were significantly associated with high Eq-CPZ and verbal impairment with high ARS score. Moreover, this effect was higher in the low IQ subgroup.
Clinicians should be aware of the potential cognitive impairment associated with AP in advanced remission FEP, particularly in lower premorbid IQ patients.
Research carried out in different cultural contexts shows that the use of exclusively coercive disciplinary measures does not improve the behavior of those punished, and may even increase the risks underpinning those behaviors. The aim of this research was to study whether there is a link between repeatedly suffering punishment at school and psychosocial risks in adolescence. A non-experimental design was implemented with selected groups. The participants were 507 adolescents from four groups with different risk levels: in social protection (n = 189); subject to court measures (n = 104); in treatment for drug abuse (n = 25); and comparison group (n = 189). A questionnaire was applied collectively. The variables measured were school punishments, violence, drug consumption and commission of crimes. The mild punishments variable predicted and increased the probability of consuming alcohol, tobacco and cannabis by 34% (95% CI [1.1, 1.5]), and increased the probability of using illegal drugs by 11% (95% CI [1.11, 1.30]). Te severe punishments variable increased the probability of using illegal drugs by 86% (95% CI [1.41, 2.49]) and increased the probability of committing crimes by 40% (95% CI [1.13, 1.73]). School punishments, particularly if severe, stand as a visible indicator of psychosocial risk. Behaviors subjected to punishment should alert us to the need to intervene with individuals who manifest them for which the use of exclusively coercive measures is ineffective. A wider educational intervention is required to help them find their place in school instead of excluding them from it.
To determine the prevalence of and modifiable factors associated with prediabetes in the Comcáac Indians.
Cross-sectional study where prediabetes was defined using fasting plasma glucose, 2 h plasma glucose and glycated Hb (HbA1c). Physical, anthropometric and biochemical measurements, medical record, socio-economic, dietary and physical activity information were collected. The modifiable factors associated with prediabetes were assessed using multiple logistic regression.
Comcáac Indian communities of Punta Chueca and El Desemboque, Sonora, Mexico.
Adults (n 227) aged 20 years or older.
The sex- and age-adjusted prevalence (95 % CI) of prediabetes was 47·1 (40·8, 53·5) % in the overall population; age-adjusted prevalence was 47·3 (35·6, 59·0) % in men and 46·7 (39·1, 54·3) % in women. The modifiable factors associated with a risk of prediabetes (OR; 95 % CI) were light-intensity physical activity (per 1 h/week increase: 1·04; 1·01, 1·07) and insulin resistance (homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance score >6·1 v. <4·1: 4·62; 1·37, 15·51). Increased consumption of a traditional dietary pattern based on fish and seafood, low-fat cereals, fruits and vegetables was a protective factor (0·49; 0·31, 0·79). All variables were modelled together and adjusted for age and sex.
The high prediabetes prevalence found in the Comcáac community is alarming because it represents a large number of people who are at risk for type 2 diabetes. The identification of modifiable factors associated with prediabetes that are specific to this population may be useful for designing effective strategies to prevent prediabetes.
Polyurethane-based bioadhesive was synthesized with polyols derived from castor oil (chemically modified and unmodified) and hexamethylene diisocyanate with chitosan addition as a bioactive filler. The objective was to evaluate the effect of type of polyols with the incorporation of low-concentrations of chitosan on the mechanical and biological properties of the polymer to obtain suitable materials in the design of biomaterials. The results showed that increasing physical crosslinking increased the mechanical and adhesive properties. An in vitro cytotoxic test of polyurethanes showed cellular viability. The biocompatibility of the polyurethanes favors the adhesion of L929 cells at 6, 24, and 48 h. The polyurethanes showed bacterial inhibition depending on the polyol and percentage of chitosan. The antibacterial effect of the polyurethanes for Escherichia coli decreased 60–90% after 24 h. The mechanical and adhesive properties together with biological response in this research suggested these polyurethanes as external application tissue bioadhesives.
Elastic strain is an effective and thus widely used parameter to control and modify the electrical, optical, and magnetic properties of crystalline solid-state materials. It has a large impact on device performance and enables adjusting the materials functionality. Here, we promote a micromechanical strain enhancement technology to achieve ultra-high strain in semiconductors. The here presented suspended membranes enable the accurate control of the strain on a wafer-scale by standard top-down fabrication methods making it attractive for both device applications and also, thanks to the simplicity of the method, for fundamental research. This review aims at discussing the process of strain enhancement and its usage as an investigation platform for strain-related physical properties. Furthermore, we present design rules and a detailed analysis of fracture effects limiting the strain enhancement.
The history of science focused outside of Europe and the United States has contributed to our understanding of the construction of knowledge in two ways – through the theories of diffusion and dependency. The first centres on the spread of metropolitan knowledge through nations on the periphery. The second is centred on the asymmetrical relationship between centre and periphery, characterized by the latter's inability to build an autonomous system of scientific and technological innovation, and the importation of foreign knowledge by local elites. Despite their obvious differences, both types of theories have produced national accounts of science and technology in peripheral countries which are restricted to local events, and which ignore the international context. In neither case is there an emphasis on global or reciprocal connections, or a focus on circuits of practices that may help explain the construction of knowledge at both the regional and global level.
The rise of postcolonial studies in the history of science has emphasized the need for interconnected histories. As Sanjay Subrahmanyam has suggested, we need ‘connected histories as opposed to comparative histories’. These would need to be written from a symmetrical point of view. While interconnected histories require a focus on the circulation of people, technologies and materials, symmetrical accounts demand the acknowledgement of local resistances and the recognition that the practices of more marginal partners help shape the knowledge and practices at the hegemonic centres.
Cognitive deficits have a significant impact on the daily performance of fibromyalgia patients. This paper analyzes executive functioning and decision-making performance, and the relationships between these functions and pain, anxiety, depression and medication in fibromyalgia patients. A group of fibromyalgia patients (FG) (n = 85) was compared with a healthy control group (CG) (n = 85) in their performance in the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST) and the Iowa Gambling Task (IGT). In the WCST, results showed a percentage of non-perseverative errors significantly higher in the CG than in the FG (p = .026), the other variables (percentage of perseverative errors, number of categories and failures to maintain set) showed no significant differences. In relation to decision-making (IGT), once the rules had been learnt, the FG made fewer advantageous choices than the CG, but these differences were not statistically significant (p = .325). In the FG, pain severity (p = .010) and impact on daily activities (p = .016) interfered with decision-making, unlike anxiety, depression or medication, which did no relate to it. In executive function, pain and impact on daily activities were associated with the percentage of perseverative errors (p = .051) and the number of categories (p = .031), whereas pain severity was related to failures to maintain set (p = .039), indicative of increased distractibility and poor attentional ability. In conclusion, FG showed normal performance in executive functioning and decision-making. Moreover, pain was associated with neuropsychological functioning whereas anxiety, depression and medication were not.
Nitrogen-doped multiwalled carbon nanotube (CNT) bundles exhibiting pine-tree-like morphologies were synthesized on silicon–silicon oxide (Si/SiO2) substrates using a pressure-controlled chemical vapor deposition process. Electron field emission (FE) measurements showed a notable emission improvement at low turn-on voltages for the CNT pine-like morphologies (e.g., 0.59 V/µm) in comparison with standard aligned N-doped CNTs (>1.5 V/µm). We envisage that these pine-tree-like structures could be potentially useful in the fabrication of efficient FE and photonic devices.
Introduction. México is one
of the most important producers and exporters of blackberries in
the world. During postharvest handling, blackberry fruits are exposed
to the attack of phytopathogenic fungi. Materials and methods.
To obtain Rhizopus stolonifer isolates, samples
of leaves and rhizospheric soils were placed on Petri plates containing
Potato Dextrose Agar (PDA). In addition, fruits were also placed
in humidity chambers at 25 °C. To describe the infection process
on blackberry fruits by Rhizopus stolonifer, samples
were taken at different intervals for a period of 72 h. All fungal
isolates obtained were maintained on PDA. The bacterial colonies
were isolated and purified by streaking on PDA. The antagonistic
activity of the bacteria was assessed against R. stolonifer by
dual culture technique on PDA. To detect the production of siderophores,
the chrome azurol S assay was carried out. Results.
The infection process of R. stolonifer on blackberry
fruits was described for the first time in this work. Eighty-six
bacterial isolates from different parts of the plant and rhizospheric
soil were obtained. Bacterial isolates with antagonistic activity
were identified and the production of siderophores was measured.
Four isolates showed antagonistic activity against R. stolonifer.
Bacillus subtilis obtained from soil was the most
effective isolate. Conclusion. In this study we isolated
and identified antagonistic bacteria with potential for biocontrol
on Rhizopus stolonifer obtained from blackberry fruits.
To our knowledge this is the first report regarding this topic.
Environmental issues related to CO2 emissions have become a key focus for many different industries, including the cement and concrete industry. An environmentally optimized ‘green’ concrete can provide a much needed alternative to conventional concrete to reduce the carbon foot-print of the construction industry. This can be achieved through high Portland cement replacement by fly ash and with the inclusion of activators to enhance the rate of development of strength and other properties. This study evaluates different fly ashes and different activators (Na2SO4, lime and quicklime) that are added to enhance the reaction of the fly ash to achieve a comparable performance to that of standard Portland cement in mixes of much lower CO2 emissions. TGA, XRD and SEM are used to determine the development of hydration products and the consumption of portlandite by the fly ash. It is found that the amorphous content of the fly ash is an important parameter influencing compressive strength evolution. Based on the results, Na2SO4 as an activator, and a fly ash with high reactive SiO2 and Al2O3 contents and low Fe2O3 are found to provide the best options for producing a high volume fly ash matrix with the potential to show comparable behavior to a Portland cement control mix.
Tritrichomonas foetus is a protist that causes bovine trichomoniasis and presents a well-developed Golgi. There are very few studies concerning the Golgi in trichomonads. In this work, monoclonal antibodies were raised against Golgi of T. foetus and used as a tool on morphologic and biochemical studies of this organelle. Among the antibodies produced, one was named mAb anti-Golgi 20.3, which recognized specifically the Golgi complex by fluorescence and electron microscopy. By immunoblotting this antibody recognized two proteins with 60 and 66 kDa that were identified as putative beta-tubulin and adenosine triphosphatase, respectively. The mAb 20.3 also recognized the Golgi complex of the Trichomonas vaginalis, a human parasite. In addition, the nucleotide coding sequences of these proteins were identified and included in the T. foetus database, and the 3D structure of the proteins was predicted. In conclusion, this study indicated: (1) adenosine triphosphatase is present in the Golgi, (2) ATPase is conserved between T. foetus and T. vaginalis, (3) there is new information concerning the nucleic acid sequences and protein structures of adenosine triphosphatase and beta-tubulin from T. foetus and (4) the mAb anti-Golgi 20.3 is a good Golgi marker and can be used in future studies.
Human activity and specifically tourism has been increasing in Antarctica over the last few years. Few studies have examined the indirect effects of human visits on Antarctic penguin rookeries. This work aims to study the differences between a highly visited (Hannah Point) and a rarely visited (Devil's Point, Byers Peninsula) gentoo penguin rookery on Livingston Island. Our results suggest that potential indirect effects of human impact are observed in gentoo penguins at Hannah Point, a colony heavily visited by tourists. Penguins at Hannah Point showed a higher presence of heavy metals such as Pb and Ni and a higher number of erythrocytic nuclear abnormalities than penguins at Devil's Point. Immunological parameters showed different results depending on whether we consider the cellular response - the number of lymphocytes being higher in penguins from Hannah Point - or the humoral response - the level of immunoglobulins being higher in penguins from Devil's Point. Measurements of corticosterone levels in feathers and heterophil/lymphocyte (H/L) ratio in blood showed lower levels in the heavily visited rookery than in the rarely visited rookery. Finally, we did not detect Campylobacter jejuni, a bacteria potentially transmitted by humans in either of the populations and we did not find any difference in the prevalence of Campylobacter lari between the populations.