To save content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about saving content to .
To save content items to your Kindle, first ensure email@example.com
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about saving to your Kindle.
Note you can select to save to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be saved to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
From a systematic review framework, we assessed the preclinical evidence on the effectiveness of drug combinations for visceral leishmaniasis (VL) treatment. Research protocol was based on the PRISMA guideline. Research records were identified from Medline, Scopus and Web of Science. Animal models, infection and treatment protocols, parasitological and immunological outcomes were analysed. The SYRCLE's (SYstematic Review Center for Laboratory Animal Experimentation) toll was used to evaluate the risk of bias in all studies reviewed. Fourteen papers using mice, hamster and dogs were identified. Leishmania donovani was frequently used to induce VL, which was treated with 23 drugs in 40 different combinations. Most combinations allowed to reduce the effective dose, cost and time of treatment, in addition to improving the parasitological control of Leishmania spp. The benefits achieved from drug combinations were associated with an increased drug's half-life, direct parasitic toxicity and improved immune defences in infected hosts. Selection, performance and detection bias were the main limitations identified. Current evidence indicates that combination chemotherapy, especially those based on classical drugs (miltefosine, amphotericin B antimony-based compounds) and new drugs (CAL-101, PAM3Cys, tufisin and DB766), develops additive or synergistic interactions, which trigger trypanocidal and immunomodulatory effects associated with reduced parasite load, organ damage and better cure rates in VL.
We summarize some of the past year's most important findings within climate change-related research. New research has improved our understanding about the remaining options to achieve the Paris Agreement goals, through overcoming political barriers to carbon pricing, taking into account non-CO2 factors, a well-designed implementation of demand-side and nature-based solutions, resilience building of ecosystems and the recognition that climate change mitigation costs can be justified by benefits to the health of humans and nature alone. We consider new insights about what to expect if we fail to include a new dimension of fire extremes and the prospect of cascading climate tipping elements.
A synthesis is made of 10 topics within climate research, where there have been significant advances since January 2020. The insights are based on input from an international open call with broad disciplinary scope. Findings include: (1) the options to still keep global warming below 1.5 °C; (2) the impact of non-CO2 factors in global warming; (3) a new dimension of fire extremes forced by climate change; (4) the increasing pressure on interconnected climate tipping elements; (5) the dimensions of climate justice; (6) political challenges impeding the effectiveness of carbon pricing; (7) demand-side solutions as vehicles of climate mitigation; (8) the potentials and caveats of nature-based solutions; (9) how building resilience of marine ecosystems is possible; and (10) that the costs of climate change mitigation policies can be more than justified by the benefits to the health of humans and nature.
Social media summary
How do we limit global warming to 1.5 °C and why is it crucial? See highlights of latest climate science.
Green tea is a popular drink used for therapeutic purposes to mitigate the consequences of diabetes. In this study, we aimed at evaluating the potential of green tea infusion to ameliorate structural and enzymatic damages caused by hyperglycemia in the testis and epididymis of Wistar rats. For that, nondiabetic and streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats (negative control and diabetes control, respectively) received 0.6 mL of water by gavage. Another set of diabetic animals received 100 mg/kg of green tea infusion diluted in 0.6 mL of water/gavage (diabetes + green tea) daily. After 42 days of treatment, the testes and epididymides were removed and processed for histopathological analysis, micromineral determination, and enzymatic assays. The results showed that treatment with green tea infusion preserved the testicular and epididymal histoarchitecture, improving the seminiferous epithelium and the sperm production previously affected by diabetes. Treatment with green tea reduced tissue damages caused by this metabolic condition. Given the severity of hyperglycemia, there was no efficacy of the green tea infusion in maintaining the testosterone levels, antioxidant enzyme activity, and microminerals content. Thus, our findings indicate a protective effect of this infusion on histological parameters, with possible use as a complementary therapy for diabetes.
Doctor–patient communication in oncology, particularly concerning diagnostic disclosure, is a crucial factor related to the quality of the doctor–patient relationship and the psychological state of the patient. The aims of our study were to investigate physicians' opinions and practice with respect to disclosure of a cancer diagnosis and to explore potential related factors.
A self-report questionnaire developed for our study was responded to by 120 physicians from Coimbra University Hospital Centre and its primary healthcare units.
Some 91.7% of physician respondents generally disclosed a diagnosis, and 94.2% were of the opinion that the patient knowing the truth about a diagnosis had a positive effect on the doctor–patient relationship. A need for training about communicating with oncology patients was reported by 85.8% of participants. The main factors determining what information to provide to patients were: (1) patient intellectual and cultural level, (2) patient desire to know the truth, and (3) the existence of family.
Significance of results:
Our results point to a paradigm shift in communication with cancer patients where disclosure of the diagnosis should be made part of general clinical practice. Nevertheless, physicians still experience difficulties in revealing cancer diagnoses to patients and often lack the skills to deal with a patient's emotional responses, which suggests that more attention needs to be focused on communication skills training programs.
To quantify the association between breast-feeding and Helicobacter pylori infection, among children and adolescents.
We searched MEDLINETM and ScopusTM up to January 2013. Summary relative risk estimates (RR) and 95 % confidence intervals were computed through the DerSimonian and Laird method. Heterogeneity was quantified using the I2 statistic.
Twenty-seven countries/regions; four low-income, thirteen middle-income and ten high-income countries/regions.
Studies involving samples of children and adolescents, aged 0 to 19 years.
We identified thirty-eight eligible studies, which is nearly twice the number included in a previous meta-analysis on this topic. Fifteen studies compared ever v. never breast-fed subjects; the summary RR was 0·87 (95 % CI 0·57, 1·32; I2=34·4 %) in middle-income and 0·85 (95 % CI 0·54, 1·34; I2=79·1 %) in high-income settings. The effect of breast-feeding for ≥4–6 months was assessed in ten studies from middle-income (summary RR=0·66; 95 % CI 0·44, 0·98; I2=65·7 %) and two from high-income countries (summary RR=1·56; 95 % CI 0·57, 4·26; I2=68·3 %). Two studies assessed the effect of exclusive breast-feeding until 6 months (OR=0·91; 95 % CI 0·61, 1·34 and OR=1·71; 95 % CI 0·66, 4·47, respectively).
Our results suggest a protective effect of breast-feeding in economically less developed settings. However, further research is needed, with a finer assessment of the exposure to breast-feeding and careful control for confounding, before definite conclusions can be reached.
This study focuses on 606 Brazilian women’s cultural models regarding their relation with their family, as evaluated by the Family Allocentrism Idiocentrism Scale (FAS). The scale was translated into Portuguese, submitted to back-translation and adapted. Analyses of the scale’s structure indicated that the best fit model involves two independent factors. Univariate GLM (General Linear Model) analyses showed that the place where mothers were raised presented a significant effect on their scores on factor 1 (normative familial allocentrism). Mothers raised on rural areas have higher scores on this factor, than the ones raised on urban areas. The opposite occurred with factor 2 (relational familial allocentrism). The set of evidences indicate that the FAS may be a bi-dimensional measure. One dimension would be part of a more stable and basic model of relation to family, constructed during development. The second dimension would be related to more recent experiences and would be more readily affected by socio-cultural context changes, including in acculturation processes.
Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this to your organisation's collection.