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The aim of this study is to explore the influence of tea consumption on diabetes mellitus in Chinese population. This multicenter, cross-sectional study was conducted in eight sites from south, east, north, west and middle regions in China by enrolling 12,017 subjects aged 20–70. Sociodemographic and general information were collected by standardized questionnaire. Standard procedure was used to measure anthropometric characteristics and obtain blood samples. The diagnosis of diabetes was determined using a standard 75-g oral glucose tolerance test. In the final analysis, 10,825 participants were included, and multiple logistic models and interaction effect analysis were applied for assessing the association between tea-drinking with diabetes. Compared with non-tea drinkers, the multivariable-adjusted odds ratios for newly-diagnosed diabetes were 0.80(0.67, 0.97), 0.88(0.71, 1.09) and 0.86(0.67, 1.11) for daily tea-drinkers, occasional tea-drinkers and seldom tea-drinkers, respectively. Furthermore, drinking tea daily was related to decreased risk of diabetes in female by 32%, elderly (>45y) by 24% and obese (BMI>30kg/m2) by 34%. Moreover, drinking dark tea was associated with reduced risk of diabetes by 45% [OR: 0.55 (0.42, 0.72), P < 0.01]. The results imply that drinking tea daily was negatively related to risk of diabetes in female, elderly and obese people. In addition, drinking dark tea was associated with decreased risk of T2DM.
We introduce the notion of a distributional
) associated with fractional Sobolev functions on
, a smooth bounded open subset in
. We show that the distributional
-Hessian is weakly continuous on the fractional Sobolev space
and that the weak continuity result is optimal, that is, the distributional
-Hessian is well defined in
if and only if
We investigated attitudes toward 10 specific groups of individuals with disabilities among students in college settings. These groups comprised major depression, substance use disorder (SUD), anxiety disorder, autism spectrum disorder (ASD), cerebral palsy, hearing impairment, learning disability, visual impairment, spinal cord injury, and cancer survivor. The multidimensional scaling (MDS) analysis revealed a two-dimension space representing participants’ attitudes toward those disabilities. The MDS biplot further indicated higher levels of perceived dangerousness from the groups with SUD, major depression, anxiety disorder, and ASD. The hierarchical cluster analysis revealed that cluster A (SUD and major depression) was rated as having the highest level of social distance (i.e., negative attitudes). The implications for research and practice in rehabilitation counseling were discussed.
This paper introduces a dual-user training system whose design is based on an energetic approach. This kind of system is useful for supervised hands-on training where a trainer interacts with a trainee through two haptic devices, in order to practice on a manual task performed on a virtual or teleoperated robot (e.g., for an Minimally Invasive Surgery (MIS) task in a surgical context). This paper details the proof of stability of an Energy Shared Control (ESC) architecture we previously introduced for one degree of freedom (d.o.f.) devices. An extension to multiple degrees of freedom is proposed, along with an enhanced version of the Adaptive Authority Adjustment function. Experiments are carried out with 3 d.o.f. haptic devices in free motion as well as in contact contexts in order to show the relevance of this architecture.
Signal-in-space (SIS) continuity and availability are important indicators of performance assessment for Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSSs). The BeiDou Navigation Satellite System (BDS) Open Service Performance Standard (BDS-OS-PS-1.0) has been released, and the corresponding public performance indicators have been provided, but the actual SIS performance is uncertain to users. SIS continuity and availability are primarily related to unscheduled outages (failures). Therefore, based on the existing failure classification system and actual operation modes, four types of failure modes are first analysed: long-term failure related to satellite service period, maintenance failure related to satellite manoeuvring, short-term failure associated with random repairable anomalies and equivalent failure corresponding to a combination of the above three types of failures. Second, based on the failure classification and selected precise and broadcast ephemerides from 2015–2016, the Mean Time Between Failure (MTBF) and Mean Time To Repair (MTTR) of each failure type are obtained using appropriate detection methods. Finally, using a corresponding assessment model, the SIS continuity and availability of BeiDou are calculated for individual and equivalent failure cases, and these are compared with the provided index in the BDS Open Service Performance Standard.
Although the streaked optical pyrometer (SOP) system has been widely adopted in shock temperature measurements, its reliability has always been of concern. Here, two calibrated Planckian radiators with different color temperatures were used to calibrate and verify the SOP system by comparing the two calibration standards using both multi-channel and single-channel methods. A high-color-temperature standard lamp and a multi-channel filter were specifically designed for the measurement system. To verify the reliability of the SOP system, the relative deviation between the measured data and the standard value of less than 5% was calibrated out, which demonstrates the reliability of the SOP system. Furthermore, a method to analyze the uncertainty and sensitivity of the SOP system is proposed. A series of laser-induced shock experiments were conducted at the ‘Shenguang-II’ laser facility to verify the reliability of the SOP system for temperature measurements at tens of thousands of kelvin. The measured temperature of the quartz in our experiments agreed fairly well with previous works, which serves as evidence for the reliability of the SOP system.
Evaluation of Cr, Mn, Fe, Zn and Se in humans is challenged by the potentially high within-individual variability of these elements in biological specimens, which are poorly characterised. This study aimed to evaluate their within-day, between-day and between-month variability in spot samples, first-morning voids and 24-h collections. A total of 529 spot urine samples (including eighty-eight first-morning voids and 24-h collections) were collected from eleven Chinese adult men on days 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 30, 60 and 90 and analysed for these five elements using inductively coupled plasma-MS. Intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC) were utilised to characterise the reproducibility, and their sensitivity and specificity were analysed to assess how well a single measurement classified individuals’ 3-month average exposures. Serial measurements of Zn in spot samples exhibited fair to good reproducibility (creatinine-adjusted ICC = 0·47) over five consecutive days, which became poor when the samples were gathered months apart (creatinine-adjusted ICC = 0·33). The reproducibility of Cr, Mn, Fe and Se in spot samples was poor over periods ranging from days to months (creatinine-adjusted ICC = 0·01–0·12). Two spot samples were sufficient for classifying 60 % of the men who truly had the highest (top 33 %) 3-month average Zn concentrations; for Cr, Mn, Fe and Se, however, at least three specimens were required to achieve similar sensitivities. In conclusion, urinary Cr, Mn, Fe, Zn and Se concentrations showed a strong within-individual variability, and a single measurement is not enough to efficiently characterise individuals’ long-term exposures.
Traditional decision rules have limitations when a new technology is less effective and less costly than a comparator. We propose a new probabilistic decision framework to examine non-inferiority in effectiveness and net monetary benefit (NMB) simultaneously. We illustrate this framework using the example of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) and electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) for treatment-resistant depression.
We modeled the quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs) associated with the new intervention (rTMS), an active control (ECT), and a placebo control, and we estimated the fraction of effectiveness preserved by the new intervention through probabilistic sensitivity analysis (PSA). We then assessed the probability of cost-effectiveness using a traditional cost-effectiveness acceptability curve (CEAC) and our new decision-making framework. In our new framework, we considered the new intervention cost-effective in each simulation of the PSA if it preserved at least 75 percent of the effectiveness of the active control (thus demonstrating non-inferiority) and had a positive NMB at a given willingness-to-pay threshold (WTP).
rTMS was less effective (i.e., associated with fewer QALYs) and less costly than ECT. The traditional CEAC approach showed that the probabilities of rTMS being cost-effective were 100 percent, 39 percent, and 14 percent at WTPs of $0, $50,000, and $100,000 per QALY gained, respectively. In the new decision framework, the probabilities of rTMS being cost-effective were reduced to 23 percent, 21 percent, and 13 percent at WTPs of $0, $50,000, and $100,000 per QALY, respectively.
This new framework provides a different perspective for decision making with considerations of both non-inferiority and WTP thresholds.
Many cities have announced ambitious plans to introduce zero-emission electric bus systems. The transformation process to electric bus systems opens up a vast design space as different charging strategies, charging technologies and battery types are available. Therefore, a profound assessment strategy is necessary to find a “most suitable system solution” under given strategic and operational requirements.
In this study, we present a new methodology for conceptual design of urban electric bus systems. First, the available e-bus technologies are analysed with a special focus on charging systems, battery technology and aging. Relational functional analysis is used to derive a suitable simulation model. Based on the operational requirements, an energetic simulation of the e-bus is carried out, and the required battery capacity is obtained. Subsequently, the design space is reduced by applying a qualitative cost- technology compatibility matrix taking cost and battery aging into account. The applicability of the model is shown for an exemplary realistic operational scenario to identify three most expedient concepts, which are finally validated with an in-depth analysis.
We characterize various forms of positive dependence, such as association, positive supermodular association and dependence, and positive orthant dependence, for jump-Feller processes. Such jump processes can be studied through their state-space dependent Lévy measures. It is through these Lévy measures that we will provide our characterization. Finally, we present applications of these results to stochastically monotone Feller processes, including Lévy processes, the Ornstein–Uhlenbeck process, pseudo-Poisson processes, and subordinated Feller processes.
Background: This is an updated on-line survey of the awareness and knowledge of stroke and heart disease amongst Chinese-Canadians carried out in 2017. Methods: 1001 randomnly selected Chinese-Canadians from Toronto and Vancouver area. Results: 46% were > 45 years old and male to female ratio was: 49.3 : 50.8, with native language being Cantonese in 40%, Mandarin 24% and 31% English. 82% were Canadian citizens and 31% had been in Canada < 10 years. 44% were from Mainland China, 37% Hong Kong , 6% Taiwan and 12% were borned in Canada. 85% were able to name at least one symptom of heart attack (p=0.005) while 80% were able to name at least one symptom of stroke (p=0.0008). 85% would call 911 in response to symptoms of heart attack or stroke compared to only 20% in a previous 2004 telephone survey (p=0.00001) . Conclusions: There is a dramatic improvement in the awareness and knowledge of stroke and heart disease amongst Chinese-Canadians compared to a previous telephone survey in 2004. This significant change could be due to difference in survey technique, but these improvements could also be due to the ongoing health promotion efforts by the Chinese-Canadian Council in support of the Heart & Stroke Foundation.
This paper presents a lower-limb exoskeleton that is actuated by pneumatic muscle actuators (PMAs). This exoskeleton system is composed of the mechanical structures, a treadmill, and a weight support system. With the cooperative work of the three parts, the system aims to assist either the elderly for muscle strengthening by conducting walking activities or the stroke patients during a rehabilitation training program. A mechanism is developed to separate the PMAs from the wearer’s legs to reduce the subject’s physical exertion. Furthermore, considering the difficulty in the modeling of proposed PMAs-driven exoskeleton, a safe and model-free control strategy called proxy-based sliding mode control (PSMC) is used to ensure proper control of the exoskeleton. However, the favorable performances are strongly dependent on the appropriate control parameters, which may be difficult to obtain with blind tuning. Therefore, we propose a global parameters optimization algorithm called switch-mode firefly algorithm (SMFA) to automatically calculate the pre-defined object function and attain the most applicable parameters. Experimental studies are conducted, and the results show the effectiveness of the proposed method.
This article aimed at developing an adaptive version of the subjective well-being (SWB) scale to measure a comprehensive concept of SWB among Chinese university students. Item response theory was employed to formulate the item bank of the SWB scale and computerized adaptive testing (CAT) for SWB (CAT-SWB), based on several commonly used SWB scales, after unidimensionality testing, model selection, local dependence testing, parameter estimation, item fit test and differential item functioning (DIF) analysis were performed. Finally, two CAT simulations using simulated-data and real-data were carried out to verify and evaluate the CAT-SWB. Results indicated that the proposed CAT-SWB had an excellent performance in that it largely reduces the number of test items and the length of test time without losing measurement precision.
The timing of the Holocene summer monsoon maximum (HSMM) in northeastern China has been much debated and more quantitative precipitation records are needed to resolve the issue. In the present study, Holocene precipitation and temperature changes were quantitatively reconstructed from a pollen record from the sediments of Tianchi Crater Lake in northeastern China using a plant functional type-modern analogue technique (PFT-MAT). The reconstructed precipitation record indicates a gradual increase during the early to mid-Holocene and a HSMM at ~5500–3100 cal yr BP, while the temperature record exhibits a divergent pattern with a marked rise in the early Holocene and a decline thereafter. The trend of reconstructed precipitation is consistent with that from other pollen records in northeastern China, confirming the relatively late occurrence of the HSMM in the region. However, differences in the onset of the HSMM within northeastern China are also evident. No single factor appears to be responsible for the late occurrence of the HSMM in northeastern China, pointing to a potentially complex forcing mechanism of regional rainfall in the East Asian monsoon region. We suggest that further studies are needed to understand the spatiotemporal pattern of the HSMM in the region.