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Do you have the tools to address recent challenges and problems in modern computer networks? Discover a unified view of auction theoretic applications and develop auction models, solution concepts, and algorithms with this multidisciplinary review. Devise distributed, dynamic, and adaptive algorithms for ensuring robust network operation over time-varying and heterogeneous environments, and for optimizing decisions about services, resource allocation, and usage of all network entities. Topics including cloud networking models, MIMO, mmWave communications, 5G, data aggregation, task allocation, user association, interference management, wireless caching, mobile data offloading, and security. Introducing fundamental concepts from an engineering perspective and describing a wide range of state-of-the-art techniques, this is an excellent resource for graduate and senior undergraduate students, network and software engineers, economists, and researchers.
To investigate the effect of different energies on dose distribution in volumetric-modulated arc therapy (VMAT) plans for head and neck cancer.
Materials and methods:
Data from nine patients undergoing VMAT plans using 6 MV, 10 MV and dual-energy X-ray beams with the Pinnacle 3 V 9.10 treatment planning system (Philips Medical System, Fitchburg, WI, USA) were analysed for quality using the conformity index (CI) and homogeneity index (HI) for planning target volume (PTV), and for mean and maximum dose to the organs at risk (OARs): parotid glands, brainstem, spinal cord and optic nerves.
There were no clear differences in the HIs of the PTV dose among the different plans. The CIs for 10 MV and dual-energy VMAT plans were superior to that of the 6 MV VMAT plan (0·8 ± 0·3, 0·8 ± 0·3, and 0·7 ± 0·2, respectively; p = 0·001). There were no significant differences in mean/maximum dose to the OARs among the three VMAT plans.
Compared with the 6 MV VMAT plan, the dual-energy VMAT plan slightly increased the coverage of the PTV with the prescribed dose but did not decrease dose to the OARs.
This study examines the relative importance of local institutions and external finance on small business investment. Utilising the institutional theory, we argue that local institutions and external finance have heterogeneous effects on firm investment. More importantly, they may interact and moderate each other. Analysing a set of 1.3 million observations of small businesses operating in Vietnam (2006–2016) obtained from the Annual Enterprise Survey data from the Vietnam Statistics Office, we find that local institutional settings and external finance are important determinants of firm investment. Moreover, local institutions are able to moderate the effects of external finance on firm investment. As such, this study asserts that conventional models cannot discern whether institutions or external finance are more important to firm investment. Rather, the relative importance of institutions and external finance should be investigated from the perspective of their interaction.