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A cluster of Asian states are well-known for their authoritarian legality while having been able to achieve remarkable economic growth. Why would an authoritarian regime seek or tolerate a significant degree of legality and how has such type of legality been made possible in Asia? Would a transition towards a liberal, democratic system eventually take place and, if so, what kind of post-transition struggles are likely to be experienced? This book compares the past and current experiences of China, Hong Kong, South Korea, Japan, Taiwan, Singapore, and Vietnam and offers a comparative framework for readers to conduct a theoretical dialogue with the orthodox conception of liberal democracy and the rule of law.
Androgenetic embryonic stem (AgES) cells offer a possible tool for patient-specific pluripotent stem cells that will benefit genomic imprinting studies and clinic applications. However, the difficulty in producing androgenetic embryos and the unbalanced expression of imprinted genes make the therapeutic applicability of AgES cells uncertain. In this study, we produced androgenetic embryos by injecting two sperm into an enucleated metaphase II (MII) oocyte. By this method, 88.48% of oocytes survived after injection, and 20.24% of these developed to the blastocyst stage. We successfully generated AgES cell lines from the androgenetic embryos and assayed the expression of imprinted genes in the cell lines. We found that the morphological characteristics of AgES cells were similar to that of fertilized embryonic stem cells (fES), such as expression of key pluripotent markers, and generation of cell derivatives representing all three germ layers following in vivo and in vitro differentiation. Furthermore, activation of paternal imprinted genes was detected, H19, ASC12 and Tss3 in AgES cell activation levels were lower while other examined genes showed no significant difference to that of fES cells. Interestingly, among examined maternal imprinted genes, only Mest and Igf2 were significantly increased, while levels of other detected genes were no different to that of fES cells. These results demonstrated that activation of some paternal imprinted genes, as well as recovery of maternal imprinted genes, was present in AgES cells. We differentiated AgES cells into a beating embryoid body in vitro, and discovered that the AgES cells did not show significant higher efficiency in myocardial differentiation potential.
In the context of a motivating study of dynamic network flow data on a large-scale e-commerce website, we develop Bayesian models for online/sequential analysis for monitoring and adapting to changes reflected in node–node traffic. For large-scale networks, we customize core Bayesian time series analysis methods using dynamic generalized linear models (DGLMs). These are integrated into the context of multivariate networks using the concept of decouple/recouple that was recently introduced in multivariate time series. This method enables flexible dynamic modeling of flows on large-scale networks and exploitation of partial parallelization of analysis while maintaining coherence with an over-arching multivariate dynamic flow model. This approach is anchored in a case study on Internet data, with flows of visitors to a commercial news website defining a long time series of node–node counts on over 56,000 node pairs. Central questions include characterizing inherent stochasticity in traffic patterns, understanding node–node interactions, adapting to dynamic changes in flows and allowing for sensitive monitoring to flag anomalies. The methodology of dynamic network DGLMs applies to many dynamic network flow studies.
In this paper, we develop the isogeometric analysis of the dual boundary element method (IGA-DBEM) to solve the potential problem with a degenerate boundary. The non-uniform rational B-Spline (NURBS) based functions are employed to interpolate the geometry and physical function. To deal with the rank-deficiency problem due to the degenerate boundary, the hypersingular integral equation is introduced to promote the full rank for the influence matrix in the dual BEM. Finally, three numerical examples are given to verify the accuracy of our proposed method. Both circular and square domains subjected to the Dirichlet boundary condition are considered. The engineering problem containing a degenerate boundary is considered, e.g., a seepage flow problem with a sheet pile. Numerical results of the IGA-DBEM agree well with these of the exact solution and the original dual boundary element method.
A novel tetragonal B2CO structure (tP16-B2CO), formed by strong covalent sp2–sp3 B–C and B–O bonds, was predicted with aid of an unbiased structure searching method. With the energy lower than those of previously proposed candidates, except oI16-B2CO, tP16-B2CO was identified as the thermodynamic metastable phase for B2CO compound. The elastic matrix and phonon dispersion spectra declare that tP16-B2CO is mechanically and dynamically stable. The electronic band structure calculation at ambient pressure and a series of high pressure has manifested the indirect semiconducting and band gap increases first and then decreases with pressure increases. The calculation of mechanical properties such as hardness and stress–strain relations of tP16 structure revealed its common hard nature with high hardness of 23.19 GPa and anisotropy with the max stress along  is far higher than that along .
In this work, two types of zinc adipate β-nucleating agents, Adi-Zn(OH)2 (1:1) and Adi-ZnO (1:1), for polypropylene (PP) were prepared and their performances were evaluated and compared with commercial β-nucleating agent (named CNA). Results showed that Adi-Zn(OH)2 (1:1) was more effective in promoting PP to form β-crystals and improving the impact strength of PP in the range of nucleating agent addition (0–0.4 wt%). Based on these findings, the ratio of adipic acid to zinc hydroxide and the nonisothermal crystallization kinetics of the optimum ratio of adipic acid to zinc hydroxide were systematically studied; results showed that at 0.2 wt%, Adi-Zn(OH)2 (1:2), the nucleated PP displayed the highest impact strength, which was 2.6 times that of pure PP and 42% higher than that of CNA. Besides, Adi-Zn(OH)2 (1:2) could also afford to induce the formation of a high content of β-crystals and shorten the crystallization half time (t1/2) and accelerate the crystallization of PP.
The extending market of concentrated solar power plants requires high-temperature materials for solar surface receivers that would ideally heat an air coolant beyond 1300 K. This work presents investigation on high-temperature alloys with ceramic coatings (AlN or SiC/AlN stacking) to combine the properties of the substrate (creep resistance, machinability) and coating (slow oxidation kinetics, high solar absorptivity). The first results showed that high-temperature oxidation resistance and optical properties of metallic alloys were improved by the different coatings. However, the fast thermal shocks led to high stress levels not compatible due to the differences in thermal expansion coefficients.
A magnetic dipole quasi-Yagi antenna based on a dielectric resonator (DR) is proposed in this letter. The dominate TE1δ1 mode of the rectangular DR is used as a magnetic dipole which can be differentially fed by the coplanar strip line (CPS). Thanks to the DR employment, the proposed antenna has several advantages such as compact size and flexible design which means the 3-D dimensions of the DR can be easily adjusted to cater for various applications. Meanwhile, the gain of the proposed DR quasi-Yagi antenna is higher than that of traditional electric dipole counterparts. Furthermore, since the DR driver is horizontally polarized, both the metal strip and DR can be used as a director for enhancing the end-fire gain. To verify the design concept, a prototype operating at the X-band is fabricated and measured. Good agreement between the simulated and measured results can be observed.
In this study, the behaviours of subgrid-scale (SGS) turbulence are investigated with direct numerical simulations when an isotropic turbulence is brought to interact with imposed rapid waves. A partition of the velocity field is used to decompose the SGS stress into three parts, namely, the turbulent part
, the wave-induced part
and the cross-interaction part
. Under strong wave straining,
is found to follow the Kolmogorov scaling
is the filter width. Based on the linear Airy wave theory,
and the filtered strain-rate tensor due to the wave motion,
, are found to have different phases, posing a difficulty in applying the usual eddy-viscosity model. On the other hand,
and the filtered strain-rate tensor due to the turbulent motion,
, are only weakly wave-phase-dependent and could be well related by an eddy-viscosity model. The linear wave theory is also used to describe the vertical distributions of SGS statistics driven by the wave-induced motion. The predictions are in good agreement with the direct numerical simulation results. The budget equation for the turbulent SGS kinetic energy shows that the transport terms related to turbulence are important near the free surface and they compensate the imbalance between the energy flux and the SGS energy dissipation.
Above-threshold ionization (ATI) is one of the most fundamental processess when atoms or molecules are subjected to intense laser fields. Analysis of ATI process in intense laser fields by a Wigner-distribution-like (WDL) function is reviewed in this paper. The WDL function is used to obtain various time-related distributions, such as time-energy distribution, ionization time distribution, and time-emission angle distribution and so on, of atoms in laser field pulses with different laser parameters. For the linearly polarized laser pulses, the time-energy distribution intuitively shows from a quantum point of view the relationship between the ionization moment and the final energy and clearly reveals the origin of interference structures in the photoelectron spectrum. In particular, for linearly polarized few-cycle laser pulses, all calculated distributions show the dependence of electron behavior on the ionization time, emission direction, and carrier-envelope phase (CEP). For elliptically polarized few-cycle pulses, we calculate the angular distribution, ionization time distribution, and time-emission distribution, which are compared with the semiclassical calculations. Analysis shows that the offset angle (difference between positions of the peaks in the angular distributions obtained by two methods) in the angular distributions does not correspond to the offset time (difference between positions of the peaks in the ionization time distributions obtained by two methods) in the ionization time distributions, which implies that the attosecond angular streaking technique based on this correspondence between the offset angle and time is in principle inaccurate. Furthermore, the offset time cannot be interpreted as tunneling time.
The thick sedimentary deposits of the Jiudong subbasin in the western Hexi Corridor of NW China can potentially provide important records of climate change in arid and semiarid areas subject to the interaction of the East Asian summer monsoon (EASM) and the westerlies. Here we present the results of a study of the clay mineralogy of the sediments of drill core DWJ from the Jiudong subbasin. The clay minerals consist mainly of illite, followed by chlorite, kaolinite, and smectite. The clay mineral assemblages are used to define four paleoclimatic stages since ~1.8 Ma: (1) During ~1.8–1.2 Ma, the climate was relatively cold and arid; (2) during ~1.2–0.9 Ma, it was relatively warm and wet, with strongly seasonal precipitation; (3) during ~0.9–0.3 Ma, there was a long-term trend of cooling and drying; and (4) during ~0.3–0.1 Ma, the climate was warmer and wetter than during the previous period, with strongly seasonal precipitation. The paleoclimatic record of the Jiudong subbasin since ~1.8 Ma is consistent with records from the Tengger Desert and typical monsoonal areas. This suggests that the EASM penetrated into the central regions of the North Qilian Shan and Zhangye–Jiudong subbasin during ~1.2–0.9 and ~0.3–0.1 Ma.
Origami, the ancient paper folding art has inspired the engineering equipment and design for decades. The basic concept of origami is very general, which leads to applications ranging from small scale to large scale. Recently, researchers are interested in being able to create self-folding structures. Such a structure enables kinematic manipulation by external forces or moments without folding and/or unfolding operations. This is a beneficial application for many fields including aerospace systems, robots, small devices and self-assembly systems. In this paper, the investigation and analyses of the previous literatures on the key driving force of the actuation structure, including the heat, light, electricity, gas and other actuation methods. The aims are to provide researchers and practitioners with the support to systematically understand the latest technologies in this important and evolving field, with inspiration and direction for follow-up.
Flaxseed oil is rich in ɑ-linolenic acid (ALA), which is the metabolic precursor of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). This study investigated the effect of flaxseed oil supplementation on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced muscle atrophy and carbohydrate oxidation impairment in a piglet model. Twenty-four weaned pigs were used in a 2 × 2 factorial experiment including dietary treatment (5% corn oil vs. 5% flaxseed oil) and LPS challenge (saline vs. LPS). On day 21 of treatment, the pigs were injected intraperitoneally with 100 μg/kg BW LPS, or sterile saline. At 4 h after injection, blood, gastrocnemius muscle and longissimus dorsi (LD) muscle were collected. Flaxseed oil supplementation increased ALA, EPA, total n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids contents, protein/DNA ratio, and pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (PDC) quantity in muscles (p<0.05). In addition, flaxseed oil reduced mRNA expression of toll-like receptor (TLR) 4 and nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain protein (NOD) 2 and their downstream signaling molecules in muscles, and decreased plasma concentrations of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, interleukin (IL)-6, and IL-8, and mRNA expression of TNF-α, IL-1β and IL-6 (p<0.05). Moreover, flaxseed oil inclusion increased the ratios of phosphorylated Akt 1/ total Akt 1 and phosphorylated forkhead Box O (FOXO) 1/ total FOXO1, and reduced mRNA expression of FOXO1, muscle RING finger (MuRF) 1, and pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase (PDK) 4 in muscles (p<0.05). These results suggest that flaxseed oil might have a positive effect on alleviating muscle protein loss and carbohydrates oxidation impairment induced by LPS challenge through regulation of TLR4/NOD and Akt/FOXO signaling pathway.
Governments in advanced industrial democracies generally regulate foreign direct investment (FDI) inflows with two types of policy measures: entry barriers and post-establishment restrictions. This article provides an integrated account for the two types of FDI restrictions, which is largely absent in the existing literature. We argue that the government's choice of FDI policies is shaped by a compound effect of the incumbent's ideological orientation and the political influence of unionized labour. Although inward FDI broadly benefits domestic workers, the entrance of multinational corporations (MNCs) adversely impacts the unionized interests of labour by transforming the labour market in ways detrimental to unions’ wage-bargaining leverage. Leftist governments, driven by the preferences of their labour constituency, tend to lift entry barriers to FDI in order to promote capital inflows. At the same time, leftist governments may also need to address unions’ concerns about inbound MNCs by tightening post-establishment restrictions on FDI, which impose constraints on the globalized business and operational model of MNCs. We argue that leftist incumbents generally liberalize entry barriers but tighten post-establishment restrictions when the level of labour unionization is high. We found evidence consistent with our argument from country-level and sector-level analysis of FDI restrictions, using a sample from the early 2000s to the mid-2010s of Organisation of Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) countries.
Hot extrusion experiments were conducted on Al–5.50Zn–2.35Mg–1.36Cu (wt%) alloy under various temperatures and extrusion speeds. Results indicated that dynamic recovery occurred at low temperature and then dynamic recrystallization was triggered at higher temperature or speed. High billet temperature reduced the grain size and increased the volume fraction of Al23CuFe4 and AlMgZn. When the extrusion speed was enhanced to 0.5 mm/s, the peak of MgZn2 phase diminished in the results of X-ray diffraction. The strong brass and S components appeared in all the extruded specimens. Texture intensity gradually decreased with increasing temperature and the fraction of texture components was also significantly affected by the extrusion parameters. The extruded alloy exhibited the highest ultimate tensile strength of 350.2 MPa at 480 °C and 0.5 mm/s and the best elongation of 16.78% at 520 °C and 0.1 mm/s. Moreover, the extrusion speed had more significant effects on the tensile properties than that of the temperature.
In this paper, a sandwiched type frequency selective surface (FSS) is designed and analyzed. The design procedure and operating principle is given based on the equivalent circuit model. The proposed FSS includes two identical layers of periodic metallic arrays, which are separated by a foam layer. In each layer of the periodic array, the unit cell is composed of a gridded-triple square loop structure. The FSS provides three pass-bands, in which a flat band response is presented. Three bands are separated by one or two transmission zeros, which leads to a sharp rejection on both sides of each pass-band. The central frequencies of the three pass-bands are 7.0, 10.9 and 14.0 GHz. To verify the simulated results, a prototype of the FSS is fabricated and measured. The simulated results agree well with the measured ones. This work can be used in area of a radar stealth or satellite communication system.
High-yielding short-duration cultivars are required due to the development of mechanized large-scale double-season rice (i.e. early- and late-season rice) production in China. The objective of this study was to identify whether existing early-season rice cultivars can be used as resources to select high-yielding, short-duration (less than 115 days) cultivars of machine-transplanted late-season rice. Field experiments were conducted in Yongan, Hunan Province, China in the early and late rice-growing seasons in 2015 and 2016. Eight early-season rice cultivars (Liangyou 6, Lingliangyou 211, Lingliangyou 268, Xiangzaoxian 32, Xiangzaoxian 42, Zhongjiazao 17, Zhongzao 39, and Zhuliangyou 819) with growth durations of less than 115 days were used in 2015, and four cultivars (Lingliangyou 268, Zhongjiazao 17, Zhongzao 39, and Zhuliangyou 819) with good yield performance in the late season in 2015 were grown in 2016. All cultivars had a growth duration of less than 110 days when grown in the late season in both years. Zhongjiazao 17 produced the maximum grain yield of 9.61 Mg ha−1 with a daily grain yield of 108 kg ha−1 d−1 in the late season in 2015. Averaged across both years, Lingliangyou 268 had the highest grain yield of 8.57 Mg ha−1 with a daily grain yield of 95 kg ha−1 d−1 in the late season. The good yield performance of the early-season rice cultivars grown in the late season was mainly attributable to higher apparent radiation use efficiency. Growth duration and grain yield of early-season rice cultivars grown in the late season were not significantly related to those grown in the early season. Our study suggests that it is feasible to select high-yielding short-duration cultivars from existing early-season rice cultivars for machine-transplanted late-season rice production. Special tests by growing alternative early-season rice cultivars in the late season should be done to determine their growth duration and grain yield for such selection.
Polymer redox-active materials (redoxmers) have numerous applications in the emerging electrochemical energy storage systems due to their structural versatility, fast-cycling ability, high theoretical capacity as electrode materials, sustainability, and recyclability. This review examines recent developments in improving the cycling performance of such materials and provides a vista on the future research directions.