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The Eating Assessment in Toddlers FFQ (EAT FFQ) has been shown to have good reliability and comparative validity for ranking nutrient intakes in young children. With the addition of food items (n 4), we aimed to re-assess the validity of the EAT FFQ and estimate calibration factors in a sub-sample of children (n 97) participating in the Growing Up Milk – Lite (GUMLi) randomised control trial (2015–2017). Participants completed the ninety-nine-item GUMLi EAT FFQ and record-assisted 24-h recalls (24HR) on two occasions. Energy and nutrient intakes were assessed at months 9 and 12 post-randomisation and calibration factors calculated to determine predicted estimates from the GUMLi EAT FFQ. Validity was assessed using Pearson correlation coefficients, weighted kappa (κ) and exact quartile categorisation. Calibration was calculated using linear regression models on 24HR, adjusted for sex and treatment group. Nutrient intakes were significantly correlated between the GUMLi EAT FFQ and 24HR at both time points. Energy-adjusted, de-attenuated Pearson correlations ranged from 0·3 (fibre) to 0·8 (Fe) at 9 months and from 0·3 (Ca) to 0·7 (Fe) at 12 months. Weighted κ for the quartiles ranged from 0·2 (Zn) to 0·6 (Fe) at 9 months and from 0·1 (total fat) to 0·5 (Fe) at 12 months. Exact agreement ranged from 30 to 74 %. Calibration factors predicted up to 56 % of the variation in the 24HR at 9 months and 44 % at 12 months. The GUMLi EAT FFQ remained a useful tool for ranking nutrient intakes with similar estimated validity compared with other FFQ used in children under 2 years.
By the end of their first year, infants can interpret many different types of complex dynamic visual events, such as caused-motion, chasing, and goal-directed action. Infants of this age are also in the early stages of vocabulary development, producing their first words at around 12 months. The present work examined whether there are meaningful individual differences in infants’ ability to represent dynamic causal events in visual scenes, and whether these differences influence vocabulary development. As part of the longitudinal Language 0–5 Project, 78 10-month-old infants were tested on their ability to interpret three dynamic motion events, involving (a) caused-motion, (b) chasing behaviour, and (c) goal-directed movement. Planned analyses found that infants showed evidence of understanding the first two event types, but not the third. Looking behaviour in each task was not meaningfully related to vocabulary development, nor were there any correlations between the tasks. The results of additional exploratory analyses and simulations suggested that the infants’ understanding of each event may not be predictive of their vocabulary development, and that looking times in these tasks may not be reliably capturing any meaningful individual differences in their knowledge. This raises questions about how to convert experimental group designs to individual differences measures, and how to interpret infant looking time behaviour.
We describe an ultra-wide-bandwidth, low-frequency receiver recently installed on the Parkes radio telescope. The receiver system provides continuous frequency coverage from 704 to 4032 MHz. For much of the band (
), the system temperature is approximately 22 K and the receiver system remains in a linear regime even in the presence of strong mobile phone transmissions. We discuss the scientific and technical aspects of the new receiver, including its astronomical objectives, as well as the feed, receiver, digitiser, and signal processor design. We describe the pipeline routines that form the archive-ready data products and how those data files can be accessed from the archives. The system performance is quantified, including the system noise and linearity, beam shape, antenna efficiency, polarisation calibration, and timing stability.
Evaluate efficacy and safety of a 2-month dose of aripiprazole lauroxil (AL) with a 1-day initiation regimen during hospitalization for an acute exacerbation of schizophrenia.
In the phase 3b double-blind ALPINE study, adults with schizophrenia were randomized to AL (AL NanoCrystal® Dispersion + oral aripiprazole 30 mg day 1; AL 1064 mg day 8 and every 8 weeks) or paliperidone palmitate (PP 234 mg day 1; PP 156 mg day 8 and every 4 weeks). Patients were discharged after 2 weeks of hospitalization and followed through week 25. Primary endpoint was within-group changes in PANSS total score from baseline to week 4 (observed cases). Secondary analyses included within-group changes at weeks 9 and 25 (observed) and between-group comparisons at weeks 4, 9, and 25 (MMRM). Adverse events (AEs) were monitored throughout the study.
200 patients were randomized (AL, n=99; PP, n=101); 56.6% and 42.6%, respectively, completed the study. Within-group changes from baseline in PANSS were −17.4 for AL and −20.1 for PP at week 4 (both groups, P<0.001) and continued to decline at weeks 9 (AL, −19.8; PP, −22.5) and 25 (AL, −23.3; PP, −21.7). The change in PANSS over time was similar between groups. AEs occurring in ≥10% of patients in either group were injection site pain (AL, 17.2%; PP, 24.8%), akathisia (AL, 9.1%; PP, 10.9%), and weight increased (AL, 9.1%; PP, 16.8%).
AL and PP were effective and well-tolerated for initiating treatment of schizophrenia in the hospital and continuing in the outpatient setting.
Approximately 18% of adults with intellectual disabilities living in the community display behaviours that challenge. Intensive support teams (ISTs) have been recommended to provide high-quality responsive care aimed at avoiding unnecessary admissions and reducing lengthy in-patient stays.
To identify and describe the geographical distribution and characteristics of ISTs, and to develop a typology of IST service models in England.
We undertook a national cross-sectional survey of 73 ISTs. A hierarchical cluster analysis was performed based on six prespecified grouping factors (mode of referrals, size of case-load, use of outcome measures, staff composition, hours of operation and setting of service). A simplified form of thematic analysis was used to explore free-text responses.
Cluster analysis identified two models of IST provision: (a) independent and (b) enhanced provision based around a community intellectual disability service. ISTs aspire to adopt person-centred care, mostly use the framework of positive behaviour support for behaviour that challenges, and report concerns about organisational and wider context issues.
This is the first study to examine the delivery of intensive support to people with intellectual disability and behaviour that challenges. A two-cluster model of ISTs was found to have statistical validity and clinical utility. The clinical heterogeneity indicates that further evaluation of these service models is needed to establish their clinical and cost-effectiveness.
Women are more likely to be admitted to nursing home after stroke than men. Differences in patient characteristics and outcomes by sex after institutionalization are less understood. We examined sex differences in the characteristics and care needs of patients admitted to nursing home following stroke and their subsequent survival.
We identified patients with stroke newly admitted to nursing home between April 2011 and March 2016 in Ontario, Canada, with follow-up until March 2018 using linked administrative data. We calculated prevalence ratios and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for the primary outcomes of dependence for activities of daily living, cognitive impairment, frailty, health instability, and symptoms of depression or pain, comparing women to men. The secondary outcome was all-cause mortality.
Among 4831 patients, 60.9% were women. Compared to men, women were older (median age [interquartile range, IQR]: 84 [78, 89] vs. 80 [71, 86]), more likely to be frail (prevalence ratio 1.14, 95% CI [1.08, 1.19]), have unstable health (1.45 [1.28, 1.66]), and experience symptoms of depression (1.25 [1.11, 1.40]) or pain (1.21 [1.13, 1.30]), and less likely to have aggressive behaviors (0.87 [0.80, 0.94]). Overall median survival was 2.9 years. In a propensity-score-matched cohort, women had lower mortality than men (hazard ratio 0.85, 95% CI [0.77, 0.94]), but in the age-stratified survival analysis, the survival advantage in women was limited to those aged 75 years and older.
Despite lower subsequent mortality, women admitted to nursing home after stroke required more care than men. Pain and depression are two treatable symptoms that disproportionately affect women.
Optimal stroke care requires access to resources such as neuroimaging, acute revascularization, rehabilitation, and stroke prevention services, which may not be available in rural areas. We aimed to determine geographic access to stroke care for residents of rural communities in the province of Ontario, Canada.
We used the Ontario Road Network File database linked with the 2016 Ontario Acute Stroke Care Resource Inventory to estimate the proportion of people in rural communities, defined as those with a population size <10,000, who were within 30, 60, and 240 minutes of travel time by car from stroke care services, including brain imaging, thrombolysis treatment centers, stroke units, stroke prevention clinics, inpatient rehabilitation facilities, and endovascular treatment centers.
Of the 1,496,262 people residing in rural communities, the majority resided within 60 minutes of driving time to a center with computed tomography (85%), thrombolysis (81%), a stroke unit (68%), a stroke prevention clinic (74%), or inpatient rehabilitation (77.0%), but a much lower proportion (32%) were within 60 minutes of driving time to a center capable of providing endovascular thrombectomy (EVT).
Most rural Ontario residents have appropriate geographic access to stroke services, with the exception of EVT. This information may be useful for jurisdictions seeking to optimize the regional organization of stroke care services.
Indicators are used as a benchmark for the quality of disaster response. Desirable attributes of indicators include precision, clear definition, improvement opportunity, unbiased, flexibility, and validity. Due to a lack of universally acceptable, objective indicators, it is currently difficult to gauge improvements in mass casualty preparedness within a hospital.
To describe existing indicators relevant to hospital disaster response, and to explore the use of two new indicators (decanting and chain of command).
A structured literature search in indexed databases was used to identify articles related to the measurement of hospital performance in mass casualties using a matrix technique and snowballing. Relevant websites of disaster management organizations were also reviewed and local disaster management experts were interviewed. Proposed indicators were compared against attributes and some (triage time by category, notification time, time to adequate staff response, preventable deaths, decanting times and chain of command for intensive care unit, and emergency department) were tested and measured in two exercises involving more than 90 staff each, held at two Southeast Queensland hospitals in 2017 and 2018.
Over 50 proposed indicators, including indicators within large sets, were identified. Measurement of some indicators was found to be highly subjective. The decanting and chain-of-command indicators emerged as most useful. Intensive Care Unit required 40 mins to decant beds by 50%, while ED required 25 mins to decant beds by 80%. With regards to the chain of command, ED and triage staff performed best, with 66.7% correctly identifying their immediate supervisor. Overall, staff members were able to correctly identify immediate supervisor better compared to team leaders (59.3% and 40% respectively).
There is a need to narrow down, simplify, and objectify indicators for mass casualty performance. Baseline measurements from actual disasters will provide important comparative data.
World events continue to compel hospitals to have agile and scalable response arrangements for managing natural and instigated disasters. While many hospitals have disaster plans, few exercise these plans or test their staff under realistic scenarios.
This study explores changes in perceived preparedness of multidisciplinary hospital-wide teams to manage mass casualty incidents.
Two Emergo Train System (ETS) mass casualty exercises involving 80 and 86 “victims,” respectively, were run at two southeast Queensland hospitals: one large teaching hospital and one smaller regional hospital. Pre- and post-exercise surveys were administered, capturing participants’ confidence, skills, and process knowledge anonymously on 5-point Likert scales. A waiver of ethics review was obtained. Changes in individuals’ pre- and post-scores were analyzed using paired t-tests. Open-ended questions and a “hot debrief” occurring immediately post-exercise allowed for capture of improvement ideas.
Nearly 200 unique healthcare staff (n=193) participated in one exercise. At least one survey was returned by 159 staff (82.4%). Pre- and post- surveys were available for 89 staff; two-thirds (n=59) were nurses or doctors, and 46% overall were emergency department clinicians. Ninety-seven percent reported the exercise was valuable, also recommending additional simulations. Analysis of the 89 matched-pairs showed significant (p<.001) increases in self-confidence, skills, and knowledge (point increases on a five-point Likert scale (95% confidence intervals): 0.8 (0.6-0.9) for confidence and 0.4 (0.2-0.5) for both skills and knowledge. The exercise was critically appraised and a summary of operational learnings was developed. The most common criticism of ETS was its lack of real patients.
Involvement in simulated exercises (e.g. ETS) can increase confidence, knowledge, and skills of staff to manage disasters, with the biggest improvement in confidence. Whilst validating and testing plans, simulations can also uncover opportunities to improve processes and systems.
The second year of life is a period of nutritional vulnerability. We aimed to investigate the dietary patterns and nutrient intakes from 1 to 2 years of age during the 12-month follow-up period of the Growing Up Milk – Lite (GUMLi) trial. The GUMLi trial was a multi-centre, double-blinded, randomised controlled trial of 160 healthy 1-year-old children in Auckland, New Zealand and Brisbane, Australia. Dietary intakes were collected at baseline, 3, 6, 9 and 12 months post-randomisation, using a validated FFQ. Dietary patterns were identified using principal component analysis of the frequency of food item consumption per d. The effect of the intervention on dietary patterns and intake of eleven nutrients over the duration of the trial were investigated using random effects mixed models. A total of three dietary patterns were identified at baseline: ‘junk/snack foods’, ‘healthy/guideline foods’ and ‘breast milk/formula’. A significant group difference was observed in ‘breast milk/formula’ dietary pattern z scores at 12 months post-randomisation, where those in the GUMLi group loaded more positively on this pattern, suggesting more frequent consumption of breast milk. No difference was seen in the other two dietary patterns. Significant intervention effects were seen on nutrient intake between the GUMLi (intervention) and cows’ milk (control) groups, with lower protein and vitamin B12, and higher Fe, vitamin D, vitamin C and Zn intake in the GUMLi (intervention) group. The consumption of GUMLi did not affect dietary patterns, however, GUMLi participants had lower protein intake and higher Fe, vitamins D and C and Zn intake at 2 years of age.
One of the challenges in schizophrenia long-term trials is that clinical outcomes are often confounded by covert nonadherence to prescribed oral antipsychotics. This is a post hoc analysis (>2 years) of the symptoms and illness trajectory of patients treated with the long-acting injectable (LAI) antipsychotic aripiprazole lauroxil (AL). As adherence to LAIs can be monitored, these data could assess outcome trajectories unaffected by medication discontinuations that may occur with oral antipsychotics.
The efficacy and safety of once-monthly AL (441 or 882mg) for the treatment of schizophrenia were previously demonstrated in a phase 3 trial, followed by a 52-week, long-term safety study of two AL doses (441 or 882mg once monthly; patients continuing from the phase 3 study remained on their fixed AL dose [NCT01626456]), after which patients could enroll in a second long-term extension study. Patients entering the second long-term study continued on their fixed AL dose, with a variable follow-up period of up to 128 additional weeks (NCT01895452). In this post hoc analysis, the extension studies were combined to provide continuous outcome data over 2 years’ follow-up. The 12-week assessment visit (rather than the first visit) in the first extension study was chosen as the baseline to account for patients entering this study with variable AL exposure histories (with/without prior AL exposure). We report on the trajectory of symptoms and illness severity for >2 years (up to 112weeks) after the 12-week visit using the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) total and Clinical Global Impression–Severity (CGI-S) scale scores. Course of illness was measured as the difference in PANSS and CGI-S scale scores within dose groups from baseline to end of follow-up, analyzed using MMRM.
Overall, 432/478 patients entering the initial 52-week study were included in the post hoc analysis. For the AL 441 and 882mg groups, respectively, baseline scores (mean±SD) were 59.91±16.25 and 56.27±12.89 (PANSS), and 2.99±0.97 and 2.79±0.79 (CGI-S scale). Approximately 49% of patients (211/432) remained for the entire 112-week follow-up. Over this period, the trajectory of PANSS scores improved significantly compared with baseline for both the 441 and 882mg groups, with changes from baseline (least squares mean±SE) of −5.46±0.92 (P<.0001) and −4.99±0.53 (P<.0001), respectively. CGI-S scale scores had similar improvement: changes from baseline of −0.32±0.07 (P<.0001) and −0.28±0.04 (P<.0001) for the AL 441 and 882mg groups, respectively. Overall, AL was well tolerated, with a safety profile over a 2-year follow-up that was consistent with the initial 52-week safety results.
This post hoc analysis demonstrates the safety and continued therapeutic efficacy of long-term treatment with AL in patients with schizophrenia. There were no apparent dose differences in the trajectory of symptom changes over the course of a 2-year follow-up.
Funding Acknowledgements: This study was funded by Alkermes, Inc.
Early-life adversity (ELA) is a risk factor for internalizing psychopathology (IP). ELA is also linked to alterations in neural phenotypes of emotion processing and maladaptive emotion regulatory strategies, such as ruminative brooding, in adulthood. We therefore expected that ELA would predict cortical brain activation to emotional faces in transdiagnostic IP and in turn, mediate the extent of rumination amongst patients with IPs and ELA (IP + ELA).
One hundred and thirty-two individuals, including 102 treatment-seeking adults with heterogeneous IPs and 30 healthy controls (HCs) performed an Emotional Face-Matching Task during functional magnetic resonance imaging. Whole-brain analyses compared HC (n = 30), IP (n = 52), and IP + ELA (n = 50) neural responses to emotional (angry, fearful, happy, and sad) faces v. shapes, controlling for depression and anxiety symptoms. Parameter estimates of activation were extracted for significant between-group differences and tested as a mediator of ruminative brooding in IP + ELA.
IP + ELA demonstrated increased activation in the superior frontal gyrus and anterior cingulate cortex (fear), superior parietal lobule, precuneus, posterior cingulate, and inferior temporal gyrus (fear only), and cuneus (fear and angry). These regions were preferentially correlated with ruminative brooding in IP + ELA, many of which mediated the link between IP + ELA and ruminative brooding.
Results provide evidence that ELA history amongst IP patients augments engagement of brain regions involved in emotion processing, above and beyond what is accounted for by current symptoms. Though longitudinal designs are needed, alterations in the neural correlates of maladaptive processing of socio-emotional information may be a common pathway by which ELA poses risk for psychopathology.
Safety and tolerability of long-term treatment with the long-acting antipsychotic aripiprazole lauroxil (AL) were evaluated in patients with schizophrenia.
This was an international, multicenter, phase 3, 52-week safety study of 2 fixed doses of AL (441 mg or 882 mg intramuscular every 4 weeks). Safety endpoints included adverse events (AEs) and extrapyramidal symptoms (EPS) including akathisia, injection-site reactions (ISRs), and clinically relevant changes in metabolic and endocrine values.
Of 478 patients entering this study, 236 (49%) continued from a previous 12-week, phase 3 efficacy study of AL, and 242 (51%) were newly enrolled. Overall, 77% and 23% of patients received AL 882 mg (N = 368) and 441 mg (N = 110), respectively. AEs occurred in 50.4% of patients; most were mild (28.7%) or moderate (18.2%). The most common AEs were insomnia (8.4%) and increased weight (5.0%). Akathisia was reported as an AE in 3.8% of the overall population, with higher rates in patients initiating AL on study entry than those continuing on AL. EPS-related AEs occurred in 9.4% of patients, and AEs related to metabolic parameters were reported in 4.6% of patients. Weight gain was minimal (0.8 kg), and no clinically relevant changes were observed for metabolic parameters. The overall incidence of ISRs was 3.8%; most were associated with the initial injections in patients receiving their first injection in this study.
Long-term treatment with AL is generally well tolerated, with a safety profile consistent with that of oral aripiprazole. It is a suitable option for patients with schizophrenia.
OBJECTIVES/SPECIFIC AIMS: The objective of this study is to use machine Learning techniques to generate maps of epithelium and lumen density in MRI space. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: Methods: We prospectively recruited 39 patients undergoing prostatectomy for this institutional review board (IRB) approved study. Patients underwent MP-MRI before prostatectomy on a 3T field strength MRI scanner (General Electric, Waukesha, WI, USA) using an endorectal coil. MP-MRI included field-of-view optimized and constrained undistorted single shot (FOCUS) diffusion weighted imaging with 10 b-values (b=0, 10, 25, 50, 80, 100, 200, 500, 1000, and 2000), dynamic contrast enhanced imaging, and T2-weighted imaging. T2 weighted images were intensity normalized and apparent diffusion coefficient maps were calculated. The dynamic contrast enhanced data was used to calculate the percent change in signal intensity before and after contrast injection. All images were aligned to the T2 weighted image. Robotic prostatectomy was performed 2 weeks after image acquisition. Prostate samples were sliced using a 3D printed slicing jig matching the slice profile of the T2 weighted image. Whole mount samples at 10 μm thickness were taken, hematoxylin and eosin stained, digitized, and annotated by a board certified pathologist. A total of 210 slides were included in this study. Lumen and epithelium were automatically segmented using a custom algorithm written in MATLAB. The algorithm was validated by comparing manual to automatic segmentation on 18 samples. Slides were aligned with the T2 weighted image using a nonlinear control point warping technique. Lumen and epithelium density and the expert annotation were subsequently transformed into MRI space. Co-registration was validated by applying a known warp to tumor masks noted by the pathologist and control point warping the whole mount slide to match the transform. Overlap was measured using a DICE coefficient. A learning curve was generated to determine the optimal number of patients to train the algorithm on. A PLS algorithm was trained on 150 random permutations of patients incrementing from 1 to 29 patients. Slides were stratified such that all slides from a single patient were in the same cohort. Three cohorts were generated, with tumor burden balanced across all cohort. A PLS algorithm was trained on 2 independent training sets (cohorts 1 and 2) and applied to cohort 3. The input vector consisted of MRI values and the target variable was lumen and epithelium density. The algorithm was trained lesion-wise. Trained PiCT models were applied to the test cohort voxel-wise to generate 2 new image contrasts. Mean lesion values were compared between high grade, low grade, and healthy tissue using an ANOVA. An ROC analysis was performed lesion-wise on the test set. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: Results: The segmentation accuracy validation revealed R=0.99 and R=0.72 (p<0.001) for lumen and epithelium, respectively. The co-registration accuracy revealed a 94.5% overlap. The learning curve stabilized at 10 patients with a root mean square error of 0.14, thus the size of the 2 independent training cohorts was set to 10, leaving 19 for the test cohort. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF IMPACT: We present a technique for combining radiology and pathology with machine learning for generating predictive cytological topography (PiCT) maps of cellularity and lumen density prostate. The voxel-wise approach to mapping cellular features generates 2 new interpretable image contrasts, which can potentially increase confidence in diagnosis or guide biopsy and radiation treatment.
Çatalhöyük is one of the most well-known and important Neolithic/Chalcolithic sites in the Middle East. Settlement at the site encompasses two separate tell mounds known as Çatalhöyük East and West, with the focus of attention having traditionally been upon what is often regarded as the main site, the earlier East Mound. Limitations of dating evidence have, however, rendered the nature of the relationship between the settlements on these mounds unclear. Traditional models favoured a hiatus between their occupation, or, alternatively, a rapid shift from one site to the other, often invoking changes in natural conditions by way of an explanation. New dates challenge these theories, and indicate a potentially significant overlap between the occupation of the mounds, starting in the late seventh millennium BC.
A foundation diet, an intermediate blend and a summit diet were formulated with different levels of soyabean meal, casein and crystalline amino acids to compare ‘slow’ and ‘rapid’ protein diets. The diets were offered to male Ross 308 chicks from 7 to 28 d post-hatch and assessed parameters included growth performance, nutrient utilisation, apparent digestibility coefficients and disappearance rates of starch and protein (N) in four small intestinal segments. Digestibility coefficients and disappearance rates of sixteen amino acids in three small intestinal segments and amino acid concentrations in plasma from portal and systemic circulations from the foundation and summit diets were determined. The dietary transition significantly accelerated protein (N) disappearance rates in the distal jejunum and ileum. The transition from foundation to summit diets significantly increased starch digestibility coefficients in the ileum and disappearance rates in all four small intestinal segments. These starch responses were associated with significant enhancements in nutrient utilisation. The dietary transition linearly increased digestibility coefficients and disappearance rates of amino acids in the majority of cases. The summit diet increased plasma concentrations of five amino acids but decreased those of four amino acids relative to the foundation diet to significant extents. Plasma concentrations of free amino acids were higher in the portal than systemic circulations. Rapid protein disappearance rates advantaged poultry performance and influenced post-enteral availability of amino acids. If the underlying mechanisms are to be identified, further research into the impact of protein digestive dynamics on broiler performance is required but appears justified.
This study uses two novel archaeobotanical techniques – crop carbon and nitrogen isotope analysis and functional weed ecology – to determine directly how the intensity of agricultural practice changed from the Neolithic to the Early Iron Age in south-west Germany, with the emergence of fortified hilltop settlements (Fürstensitze or chiefly seats) regarded as the first urban centres in central Europe. The crop isotope and functional weed ecological evidence suggest that surplus cereal production in the Early Iron Age was achieved through sustained use of manure combined with expansion in arable cultivation, both developments that are connected with more widespread use of animal traction. The increased scale of cultivation is broadly apparent across rural as well as fortified hilltop centres in the Early Iron Age, and considerable variability in manuring intensity is consistent with agricultural decision-making at a local level rather than centralised control. Additionally, the more intensive manuring of hulled six-row barley, used in beer production, demonstrates that the political importance of drinking and feasting in Early Iron Age society was reflected in crop husbandry practices. In terms of animal husbandry, faunal isotope data reveal a radical decrease in forest cover, potentially reflecting an expansion in the scale of herding accompanying that of arable cultivation. Site-specific patterning points to a range of herding strategies, from specialised herding of cattle at the Heuneburg to generalised patterns of livestock management at rural sites.
Reel-to-reel recordings and 15 kilocycle telelinks converge in Maryanne Amacher's telematic installation series City-Links (1967–81). As long-duration recordings of urban sites, City-Links queries the musicality of ambient sound on tape, a question of critical importance to many composers of the period. But as expressly telematic tape, City-Links embeds these recordings within a transforming US telecommunications industry where expanded long-distance dialing relied on the high-tech labour and gendered discipline of telephone operators, enrolling tapes’ ambient sounding in broader questions about the technological mediation of gender, listening and long-distance embodiment during City-Links late 1960s and 1970s span. An extended reconstruction of one City-Links's tape's tactile qualities interprets this complex interimplication as a kind of telematic ‘weave’, with a spatiotemporal warp shuttling between the weft of environmental sounds and their technical traces.