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Since 2006, Israel has been confronting an outbreak of carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE), and in 2007 Israel implemented a national strategy to contain spread. The intervention was initially directed toward acute-care hospitals and later expanded to include an established reservoir of carriage in long-term-care hospitals. It included regular reporting of CRE cases to a central registry and daily oversight of management of the outbreak at the institutional level. Microbiological methodologies were standardized in clinical laboratories nationwide. Uniform requirements for carrier screening and isolation were established, and a protocol for discontinuation of carrier status was formulated. In response to the evolving epidemiology of CRE in Israel and the continued need for uniform guidelines for carrier detection and isolation, the Ministry of Health in 2016 issued a regulatory circular updating the requirements for CRE screening, laboratory diagnosis, molecular characterization, and carrier isolation, as well as reporting and discontinuation of isolation in healthcare institutions nationwide. The principal elements of the circular are contained herein.
To estimate the incidence and identified risk factors for community-acquired (CA) and hospital-acquired (HA) Clostridium difficile infection (CDI)
We conducted 2 parallel case-control studies at Tel Aviv Sourasky Medical Center from January 1, 2011, to December 31, 2014. We identified persons with CDI, determined whether infection was community or hospital acquired, and calculated incidence rates from 2007 to 2014. We collected demographic, clinical, and epidemiological information for CDI cases and hospitalized control cases and estimated the odds ratio with 95% confidence interval using conditional logistic regression.
In total, 1,563 CDI cases were identified in the study. The incidence rate of CA-CDI and HA-CDI increased by 1.6-fold and 1.2-fold, respectively, during 2012–2014. However, the incidence rate of CA-CDI was 0.84 per 100,000 (95% CI, 0.52–1.30), the rate for HA-CDI was 4.7 per 10,000 patient days (95% CI, 4.08–5.38), respectively, in 2014. We identified several factors as independent variables significantly associated with HA-CDI: functional disability, presence of nasogastric tube, antibiotic use, chemotherapy, infection by extended-spectrum β-lactamases, and mean of albumin values. Risk factors independently associated with CA-CDI were close contact with a family member who had been hospitalized in the previous 6 months, inflammatory bowel disease, and home density index (adjusted odds ratio, 25.7; 95% confidence interval, 3.99–165.54; P=.001).
The identification of the main modifiable risk factors for HA-CDI (antibiotic exposure and hypoalbuminemia) and for CA-CDI (close contact with a family member who had been hospitalized in the previous 6 months) is likely to optimize prevention efforts; these factors are critical in preventing the spread of CDI.
Patients hospitalized in post-acute care hospitals (PACHs) constitute an important reservoir of antimicrobial-resistant bacteria. High carriage prevalence of carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) has been observed among patients hospitalized in PACHs. The objective of the study is to describe the impact of a national infection control intervention on the prevalence of CRE in PACHs.
A prospective cohort interventional study.
Thirteen PACHs in Israel.
A multifaceted intervention was initiated between 2008 and 2011 as part of a national program involving all Israeli healthcare facilities. The intervention has included (1) periodic on-site assessments of infection control policies and resources, using a score comprised of 16 elements; (2) assessment of risk factors for CRE colonization; (3) development of national guidelines for CRE control in PACHs involving active surveillance and contact isolation of carriers; and (4) 3 cross-sectional surveys of rectal carriage of CRE that were conducted in representative wards.
The infection control score increased from 6.8 to 14.0 (P < .001) over the course of the study period. A total of 3,516 patients were screened in the 3 surveys. Prevalence of carriage among those not known to be carriers decreased from 12.1% to 7.9% (P = .008). Overall carrier prevalence decreased from 16.8% to 12.5% (P = .013). Availability of alcohol-based hand rub, appropriate use of gloves, and a policy of CRE surveillance at admission to the hospital were independently associated with lower new carrier prevalence.
A nationwide infection control intervention was associated with enhanced infection control measures and a reduction in the prevalence of CRE in PACHs.
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