To our knowledge, no study has assessed the relationships between patterns of dietary behaviours, identified by latent class analysis (LCA), and chronic uninvestigated dyspepsia (CUD). The present study was conducted to determine the association between the patterns of dietary behaviours, identified by LCA, and CUD in a large sample of adults. In a cross-sectional study conducted on 4763 Iranian adults, we assessed the patterns of dietary behaviours in four domains, including ‘meal patterns’, ‘eating rate’, ‘intra-meal fluid intake’ and ‘meal-to-sleep interval’, as identified by LCA, using a pre-tested comprehensive questionnaire. Patients with CUD were identified using the Rome III diagnostic criteria. CUD was prevalent in 15·2 % (95 % CI 14·4, 16·2 %; n 723) of patients. Early satiation occurred in 6·3 % (n 302) of patients, bothersome postprandial fullness in 8·0 % (n 384) of patients and epigastric pain in 7·8 % (n 371) of patients. We defined two distinct classes of meal patterns: ‘regular’ and ‘irregular’. For eating rates, three classes were defined: ‘moderate’, ‘moderate-to-slow’ and ‘moderate-to-fast’. Participants were identified as ingesting fluid with meals in two major classes: ‘moderate intra-meal drinking’ and ‘high intra-meal drinking’. In terms of the interval between meals and sleeping, two distinct classes were identified: ‘short meal-to-sleep interval’ and ‘long meal-to-sleep interval’. After controlling for potential confounders, the ‘irregular meal pattern’ was significantly associated with a greater odds of CUD (OR 1·42, 95 % CI 1·12, 1·78) compared with a ‘regular meal pattern’. Individuals with a ‘moderate-to-fast eating rate’ were more likely to have CUD compared with those who had a ‘moderate eating rate’ (OR 1·42, 95 % CI 1·15, 1·75). Patterns of the ‘meal-to-sleep interval’ and ‘intra-meal fluid intake’ were not significantly associated with CUD. In conclusion, the ‘irregular meal pattern’ and the ‘moderate-to-fast eating rate’ were significantly associated with a greater odds of CUD. Further prospective investigations are warranted to confirm this association.