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Palmer amaranth (Amaranthus palmeri S. Watson) is a major biotic constraint in agronomic cropping systems in the United States. While crop-weed competition models offer a beneficial tool for understanding and predicting crop yield losses, within these models, certain weed biological characteristics and their response to the environment are unknown. This limits understanding of weed growth in competition with crops under different irrigation methods and how competition for soil moisture affects crop growth parameters. This research measured the effect of center-pivot irrigation (CPI) and subsurface drip irrigation (SDI) on the actual evapotranspiration (ETa) of A. palmeri grown in maize (Zea mays L.), soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.], and fallow subplots. Twelve A. palmeri plants were alternately transplanted one meter apart in the middle two rows of maize, soybean, and fallow subplots under CPI and SDI in 2019 and 2020 in southcentral Nebraska. Maize, soybean, and fallow subplots without A. palmeri were included for comparison. Soil moisture sensors were installed at 0-0.30, 0.30-0.60, and 0.60-0.90-m soil depths next to or between three A. palmeri and crop plants in each subplot. Soil moisture data were recorded hourly from the time of A. palmeri transplanting to crop harvest. The results indicate differences in A. palmeri ETa between time of season (early-, mid-, late-season) and crop type across 2019 and 2020. Although irrigation type did not affect subplot data, the presence of A. palmeri had an impact on subplot ETa across both years, which can be attributed to the variable relationship between volumetric soil water content (VWC) and ETa throughout the growing season due to advancing phenological stages and management practices. This study provides important and firstly established baseline data and information about A. palmeri evapotranspiration and its relation to morphological features for future use in mechanistic crop-weed competition models.
Corn that is resistant to aryloxyphenoxypropionate, known commercially as Enlist™ corn, enables the use of quizalofop-p-ethyl (QPE) as a selective postemergence (POST) herbicide for control of glufosinate/glyphosate-resistant corn volunteers. Growers usually mix QPE with 2,4-D choline or glufosinate or both to achieve broad-spectrum weed control in Enlist corn. The objectives of this study were 1) to evaluate the efficacy of QPE applied alone or mixed with 2,4-D choline and/or glufosinate to control glufosinate/glyphosate-resistant corn volunteers in Enlist corn and 2) to determine the effect of application time (V3 or V6 growth stage of volunteer corn) of QPE-based treatments on volunteer corn control and Enlist corn injury and yield. Field experiments were conducted in Clay Center, NE, in 2021 and 2022. Quizalofop-p-ethyl (46 or 93 g ai ha−1) applied at the V3 or V6 growth stage controlled volunteer corn by ≥88% and ≥95% at 14 and 28 d after treatment (DAT), respectively. QPE (46 g ai ha−1) mixed with 2,4-D choline (800 g ae ha−1) produced 33% less than expected control of V3 volunteer corn in 2021, and 8% less than expected control of V6 volunteer corn in 2022 at 14 DAT. Volunteer corn control was improved by 7% to 9% using the higher rate of QPE (93 g ai ha−1) in a mixture with 2,4-D choline (1,060 g ae ha−1). QPE mixed with glufosinate had an additive effect and interactions in any combinations were additive beyond 28 DAT. Mixing 2,4-D choline can reduce QPE efficacy on glufosinate/glyphosate-resistant corn volunteers up to 14 DAT when applied at the V3 or V6 growth stage; however, the antagonistic interaction did not translate into corn yield loss. Increasing the rate of QPE (93 g ai ha−1) while mixing with 2,4-D choline can reduce antagonism.
Narrow row spacing (<76 cm) could improve crop competitiveness, suppress weeds and might provide yield advantage. Many studies have been conducted to evaluate the impact of narrow row spacing; however, no quantitative synthesis of these studies exists. The objectives of this meta-analysis were to (1) quantify the overall effect of narrow row spacing (<76 cm) on weed density, biomass, control, weed seed production, and yield in corn (Zea mays L.) and soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] compared with 76-cm row spacing, and (2) assess the influence of agronomic management decisions (tillage type, weed management, herbicide application frequency and time) on effect of narrow row spacing on weed suppression and corn and soybean yield. We compiled 1,904 pair-wise observations from 35 studies conducted in 12 states in the United States during 1961 to 2018. Averaged across individual observations, narrow row spacing suppressed weed density by 34%, weed biomass by 55%, and weed seed production by 45%, while it improved weed control by 32% and crop yield by 11% compared with 76-cm row spacing. Narrow row spacing in soybean suppressed weed density by 42%, weed biomass by 71%, and increased crop yield by 12% compared with 76-cm row spacing. Although narrow row spacing had a nonsignificant effect on response variables in corn, the number of studies (n = 1 to 6) and observations (n = 1 to 59) addressing each response variable were limited. Tillage type (conventional and reduced) did not influence the response of weed density, control, and seed production in narrow row spacing; however, weed biomass and weed seed production were more greatly reduced with the sequential application of herbicides compared with a single application. Thus, narrow row spacing in soybean can be integrated with other options for management of herbicide-resistant weeds.
The herbicides that inhibit 4-hydroxyphenylpyruvate dioxygenase (HPPD) are primarily used for weed control in corn, barley, oat, rice, sorghum, sugarcane, and wheat production fields in the United States. The objectives of this review were to summarize 1) the history of HPPD-inhibitor herbicides and their use in the United States; 2) HPPD-inhibitor resistant weeds, their mechanism of resistance, and management; 3) interaction of HPPD-inhibitor herbicides with other herbicides; and 4) the future of HPPD-inhibitor-resistant crops. As of 2022, three broadleaf weeds (Palmer amaranth, waterhemp, and wild radish) have evolved resistance to the HPPD inhibitor. The predominance of metabolic resistance to HPPD inhibitor was found in aforementioned three weed species. Management of HPPD-inhibitor-resistant weeds can be accomplished using alternate herbicides such as glyphosate, glufosinate, 2,4-D, or dicamba; however, metabolic resistance poses a serious challenge, because the weeds may be cross-resistant to other herbicide sites of action, leading to limited herbicide options. An HPPD-inhibitor herbicide is commonly applied with a photosystem II (PS II) inhibitor to increase efficacy and weed control spectrum. The synergism with an HPPD inhibitor arises from depletion of plastoquinones, which allows increased binding of a PS II inhibitor to the D1 protein. New HPPD inhibitors from the azole carboxamides class are in development and expected to be available in the near future. HPPD-inhibitor-resistant crops have been developed through overexpression of a resistant bacterial HPPD enzyme in plants and the overexpression of transgenes for HPPD and a microbial gene that enhances the production of the HPPD substrate. Isoxaflutole-resistant soybean is commercially available, and it is expected that soybean resistant to other HPPD inhibitor herbicides such as mesotrione, stacked with resistance to other herbicides, will be available in the near future.
Herbicide-resistant Palmer amaranth is a troublesome weed in several agronomic crops and is a relatively new challenge to dry bean production in western Nebraska. Objectives were to evaluate preemergence (PRE) and postemergence (POST) herbicides for control of acetolactate synthase–resistant Palmer amaranth and their effect on Palmer amaranth density and biomass as well as dry bean injury and yield in western Nebraska. Field experiments were conducted in 2017 and 2019 near Scottsbluff, NE. The experiments were arranged as a two-factor strip-plot design. The strip-plot factor consisted of no-PRE or pendimethalin (1,070 g ai ha–1) + dimethenamid-P (790 g ai h–1) applied PRE. The main-plot factor was POST herbicides, which consisted of various mixtures of imazamox, bentazon, or fomesafen applied in a single or sequential application at labeled rates, and reduced rates of imazamox (9 g ai ha–1) + bentazon (314 g ai ha–1) + fomesafen (70 g ai ha–1) applied in single or sequential (two or three) applications. PRE herbicides reduced Palmer amaranth density and biomass during both years and increased dry bean yield in 2017. POST treatments containing fomesafen improved Palmer amaranth control compared with treatments containing imazamox and bentazon only. The sequential-application reduced-rate POST system did not improve Palmer amaranth control compared to one POST application containing fomesafen at a labeled rate in either year. Using pendimethalin + dimethenamid-P PRE followed by POST treatments containing imazamox + bentazon + fomesafen at a labeled rate provided 86% and 99% Palmer amaranth control in 2017 and 2019, respectively.
Weeds compete with crops for soil moisture, along with other resources, which can impact the germination, growth, and seed production of weeds; however, this impact has not been systematically recorded and synthesized across diverse studies. To address this knowledge gap, a global meta-analysis was conducted using 1,196 paired observations from 86 published articles assessing the effect of water stress on weed germination, growth characteristics, and seed production. These studies were conducted and published during 1970 through 2020 across four continents (Asia, Australia, Europe, and North America). Imposed water stress was expressed as solution osmotic potential (ψsolution), soil water potential (ψsoil), or soil moisture as percent field capacity. Meta-analysis revealed that water stress inhibits weed germination, growth, and seed production, and the quantitative response intensified with increasing water stress. A ψsolution greater than −0.8 MPa completely inhibits germination of both grass and broadleaf weeds. A ψsolution from −0.09 to −0.32 MPa reduces weed germination by 50% compared with the unstressed condition. Moderate soil water stress, equivalent to 30% to 60% field capacity, inhibits growth characteristics (branches or tillers per plant, leaf area, leaves per plant, plant height, root, and shoot biomass) by 33% and weed seed production by 50%. Severe soil water stress, below 30% field capacity, inhibits weed growth by 51% and seed production by 88%. Although water stress inhibits weed growth, it does not entirely suppress the ability to germinate, grow, and produce seeds, resulting in weed seedbank accumulation. This creates management challenges for producers, because weed seeds can survive in the soil for many years, depending on weed species and environmental conditions. Quantitative information compiled in this meta-analysis can be instrumental to model the weeds’ multidimensional responses to water stress and designing integrated weed management strategies for reducing the weed seedbank.
Velvetleaf (Abutilon theophrasti Medik.) is a troublesome broadleaf weed that competes with crops for resources such as soil moisture. Water stress can affect the ability of weed species to grow and produce seeds. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of degree of water stress on the growth and fecundity of A. threophrasti using soil moisture sensors under greenhouse conditions. Abutilon threophrasti seeds collected from a corn (Zea mays L.)–soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] field were grown in silty clay loam soil, and plants were maintained at 100%, 75%, 50%, and 25% soil field capacity (FC) corresponding to no, light, moderate, and high water-stress conditions, respectively. Water was added daily to pots based on soil moisture levels detected by a Meter Group 5TM sensor to maintain the desired water-stress level required by treatment. Plants maintained at 100% FC had the maximum number of leaves (28 leaves plant−1), followed by 21 and 15 leaves plant−1 at 75% and 50% FC, respectively. Abutilon threophrasti at 100% and 75% FC achieved maximum plant height (108 to 123 cm) compared with 83 cm at 50% FC. Abutilon threophrasti maintained at 75% FC had the greatest growth index (79,907 cm3) followed by 72,197 cm3 at 100% FC and 64,256 cm3 at 50% FC. Seed production was similar at 100%, 75%, and 50% FC (288 to 453 seeds plant−1) compared with 2 seeds plant−1 at 25% FC. This is because the majority of plants maintained at 25% FC did not survive more than 77 d after transplanting. Seed germination was 96% to 100% at 100%, 75%, and 50% FC compared with 20% germination at 25% FC. Abutilon threophrasti can survive ≥50% FC continuous water-stress conditions, although with reduced leaf number, plant height, and growth index compared with 75% and 100% FC.
Biotypes of Palmer amaranth that are resistant to acetolactate synthase (ALS) inhibitor are becoming widespread in western Nebraska. There are limited effective postemergence (POST) herbicides labeled for ALS-inhibitor-resistant Palmer amaranth control in dry edible bean. The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of dimethenamid-P in a sequential preemergence (PRE) fb followed by (fb) POST program at two POST application timings, the first and third trifoliate stages (V1 and V3, respectively), for controlling ALS-inhibitor-resistant Palmer amaranth in dry edible bean. A field study was conducted in 2019, 2020, and 2021 in Scottsbluff, NE. PRE-alone applications of pendimethalin + dimethenamid-P provided inconsistent Palmer amaranth control. Dimethenamid-P applied POST following a PRE application of pendimethalin + dimethenamid-P provided effective (>90%) Palmer amaranth control at 4 wk after V3 only at the V1 application timing in 2019. In 2020 and 2021 dimethenamid-P applied POST at V1 and V3 following a PRE application of pendimethalin + dimethenamid-P provided 99% and 98% Palmer amaranth control at 4 wk after V3, and 98% and 94% Palmer amaranth control at harvest, respectively. Palmer amaranth biomass was reduced by 95% to 99% and by 96% to 98% compared with the -nontreated control when dimethenamid-P was applied POST at V1 and V3, respectively, following a PRE application of pendimethalin + dimethenamid-P in 2020 and 2021. Application of a mixture of dimethenamid-P with imazamox + bentazon POST provided similar results to those of the fomesafen-containing treatments and dimethenamid-P alone POST. Dimethenamid-P applied POST following a PRE application of pendimethalin + dimethenamid-P resulted in similar yield as the fomesafen-containing treatments. If fomesafen is not an option due to the crop rotation interval restriction, using dimethenamid-P in a sequential PRE fb POST program is the only effective alternative to control ALS-inhibitor–resistant Palmer amaranth in Nebraska. The use of dimethenamid-P in a sequential PRE fb POST program, alone or mixed with foliar-active herbicides should be considered by dry edible bean growers who are dealing with ALS-inhibitor-resistant Palmer amaranth.
Although Palmer amaranth is currently not widespread in most dry edible bean−producing states in the United States, it is widespread in western Nebraska, a major dry edible bean−producing region. There is currently a lack of research on management and biology of Palmer amaranth within dry edible bean production. The objective of this study was to quantify the impact of season-long Palmer amaranth interference on yield of dry edible bean and seed production of Palmer amaranth. A field study was conducted in Scottsbluff, NE, in 2020 and 2021. Palmer amaranth interference at densities of 0, 0.2, 0.3, 0.5, 1, and 2 plants m−1 row of dry edible bean was evaluated. Palmer amaranth interference reduced dry edible bean yield by 77% at a weed density of 2 plants m−1 row compared to the weed-free control, and a 5% yield reduction threshold was estimated to occur at a Palmer amaranth density of 0.02 plants m−1 row. Yield reduction occurred primarily through a reduction in the number of pods per plant as Palmer amaranth density increased. Palmer amaranth plants produced 91,000 to 376,000 seeds per plant depending on densities, and as many as 140,000 seeds m−2. Study results will help farmers and other stakeholders estimate Palmer amaranth interference within their fields, and may help justify the economic cost of incorporating additional Palmer amaranth management practices.
The critical timing of weed removal (CTWR) is the point in crop development when weed control must be initiated to prevent crop yield loss due to weed competition. A field study was conducted in 2018 and 2020 near Scottsbluff, NE, to determine how the use of preemergence herbicides affects the CTWR in dry bean. The experiment was arranged as a split plot, with herbicide treatment and weed removal timing as main and sub-plot factors, respectively. Herbicide treatments consisted of no-preemergence application, or pendimethalin (1,070 g ai ha–1) + dimethenamid-P (790 g ai ha–1) applied preemergence. Sub-plot treatments included season-long weed-free, weed removal at: V1, V3, V6, R2, and R5 dry bean growth stages, and a season-long weedy control. A four-parameter logistic model was used to estimate the impact of time of weed removal, for all response variables including dry bean yield, dry bean plants m–1 row, number of pods per plant, number of seeds per pod, and seed weight. The CTWR based on 5% yield reduction was estimated to range from the V1 growth stage [(16 d after emergence (DAE)] to the R1 growth stage (39 DAE) in the no-preemergence herbicide treatment. In the preemergence-applied treatment, the CTWR began at the R2 growth stage (47 DAE). Number of dry bean plants m–1 row was reduced in the no-preemergence treatment when weed removal was delayed beyond the R2 growth stage in the 2020 field season. The use of preemergence herbicides prevented a reduction in the number of pods per plant in 2020, and the number of seeds per pod in 2018 and 2020. In 2018, the number of pods per plant was reduced by 73% when no preemergence herbicide was applied, compared to 26% in the preemergence-applied treatment. The use of preemergence-applied soil-active herbicides in dry bean delayed the CTWR and preserved yield potential.
Late-emerging summer annual weeds are difficult to control in dry bean production fields. Dry bean is a poor competitor with weeds, due to its slow rate of growth and delayed canopy formation. Palmer amaranth is particularly difficult to control due to season-long emergence and resistance to acetolactate synthase (ALS)-inhibiting herbicides. Dry bean growers rely on PPI and preemergence residual herbicides for the foundation of their weed control programs; however, postemergence herbicides are often needed for season-long weed control. The objective of this experiment was to evaluate effect of planting date and herbicide program on late-season weed control in dry bean in western Nebraska. Field experiments were conducted in 2017 and 2018 near Scottsbluff, NE. The experiment was arranged in a split-plot design, with planting date and herbicide program as main-plot and subplot factors, respectively. Delayed planting was represented by a delay of 15 d after standard planting time. The treatments EPTC + ethalfluralin, EPTC + ethalfluralin followed by (fb) imazamox + bentazon, and pendimethalin + dimethenamid-P fb imazamox + bentazon, resulted in the lowest Palmer amaranth density at 3 wk after treatment and the highest dry bean yield. The imazamox + bentazon treatment provided poor Palmer amaranth control and did not consistently result in Palmer amaranth density and biomass reduction compared with the nontreated control. In 2018, the delayed planting treatment had reduced Palmer amaranth biomass with the pendimethalin + dimethenamid-P treatment, as compared with standard planting. Delaying planting did not reduce dry bean yield and had limited benefit in improving weed control in dry bean.
The objective of this paper was to review the reproductive biology, herbicide-resistant (HR) biotypes, pollen-mediated gene flow (PMGF), and potential for transfer of alleles from HR to herbicide-susceptible grass weeds including barnyardgrass, creeping bentgrass, Italian ryegrass, johnsongrass, rigid (annual) ryegrass, and wild oats. The widespread occurrence of HR grass weeds is at least partly due to PMGF, particularly in obligate outcrossing species such as rigid ryegrass. Creeping bentgrass, a wind-pollinated turfgrass species, can efficiently disseminate herbicide resistance alleles via PMGF and movement of seeds and stolons. The genus Agrostis contains about 200 species, many of which are sexually compatible and produce naturally occurring hybrids and hybrids with species in the genus Polypogon. The self-incompatibility, extremely high outcrossing rate, and wind pollination in Italian ryegrass clearly point to PMGF as a major mechanism by which herbicide resistance alleles can spread across agricultural landscapes, resulting in abundant genetic variation within populations and low genetic differentiation among populations. Italian ryegrass can readily hybridize with perennial ryegrass and rigid ryegrass due to their similarity in chromosome numbers (2n = 14), resulting in interspecific gene exchange. Johnsongrass, barnyardgrass, and wild oats are self-pollinated species, so the potential for PMGF is relatively low and limited to short distances; however, seeds can easily shatter upon maturity before crop harvest, leading to wider dispersal. The occurrence of PMGF in reviewed grass weed species, even at a low rate, is greater than that of spontaneous mutations conferring herbicide resistance in weeds and thus can contribute to the spread of herbicide resistance alleles. This review indicates that the transfer of herbicide resistance alleles occurs under field conditions at varying levels depending on the grass weed species.
Glyphosate is the most widely used herbicide in the United States; however, concern is escalating about increasing residues of glyphosate and its metabolite aminomethylphosphonic acid (AMPA) in soil. There is a lack of scientific literature examining the response of cover crops to soil residues of glyphosate or AMPA. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the impact of glyphosate or AMPA residues in silty clay loam soil on emergence, growth, and biomass of cover crops, including cereal rye, crimson clover, field pea, hairy vetch, and winter wheat, as well as their germination in a 0.07% (0.7 g L–1) solution of AMPA or glyphosate. Greenhouse studies were conducted at the University of Nebraska–Lincoln to determine the dose response of broadleaf and grass cover crops to soil-applied glyphosate or AMPA. The results indicated that soil treated with glyphosate or AMPA up to 105 mg ae kg–1 of soil had no effect on the emergence, growth, above-ground biomass, and root biomass of any of the cover crop species tested. To evaluate the impact of AMPA or glyphosate on the seed germination of cover crop species, seeds were soaked in Petri plates filled with a 0.7 g L–1 solution of AMPA or glyphosate. There was no effect of AMPA on seed germination of any of the cover crop species tested. Seed germination of crimson clover and field pea in a 0.7 g L–1 solution of glyphosate was comparable to the nontreated control; however, the germination of cereal rye, hairy vetch, and winter wheat was reduced by 48%, 75%, and 66%, respectively, compared to the nontreated control. The results suggested that glyphosate or AMPA up to 105 mg ae kg–1 in silt clay loam soil is unlikely to cause any negative effect on the evaluated cover crop species.
Late-season control of Palmer amaranth in postharvest wheat stubble is important for reducing the seedbank. Our objectives were to evaluate the efficacy of late-season postemergence herbicides for Palmer amaranth control, shoot dry biomass, and seed production in postharvest wheat stubble. Field experiments were conducted at Kansas State University Agricultural Research Center near Hays, KS, during 2019 and 2020 growing seasons. The study site had a natural seedbank of Palmer amaranth. Herbicide treatments were applied 3 wk after wheat harvest when Palmer amaranth plants had reached the inflorescence initiation stage. Palmer amaranth was controlled by 96% to 98% 8 wk after treatment and shoot biomass as well as seed production was prevented when paraquat was applied alone or when mixed with atrazine, metribuzin, flumioxazin, 2,4-D, sulfentrazone, pyroxasulfone + sulfentrazone, or flumioxazin + metribuzin, and with glyphosate + dicamba, glyphosate + 2,4-D, saflufenacil + 2,4-D, glufosinate + dicamba + glyphosate, and glufosinate + 2,4-D + glyphosate. Palmer amaranth was controlled by 89% to 93% with application of glyphosate, glufosinate, dicamba + 2,4-D, saflufenacil + atrazine, and saflufenacil + metribuzin resulting in Palmer amaranth shoot biomass of 15 to 56 g m−2 and production of 1,080 to 7,040 seeds m−2. Palmer amaranth control was less than 86% with application of dicamba, 2,4-D, dicamba + atrazine, and saflufenacil resulting in Palmer amaranth shoot biomass of 38 to 47 g m−2 and production of 3,110 to 6,190 seeds m−2. Palmer amaranth was controlled 63% and 72%, shoot biomass was 178 and 161 g m−2, and seed production was 35,180 and 39,510 seeds m−2, respectively, with application of 2,4-D + bromoxynil + fluroxypyr, and bromoxynil + pyrasulfotole + atrazine. Growers should use these effective postemergence herbicide mixes for Palmer amaranth control to prevent seed prevention postharvest in wheat stubble.
Palmer amaranth is the most problematic and troublesome weed in agronomic cropping systems in the United States. Acetolactate synthase (ALS) inhibitor and glyphosate-resistant (GR) Palmer amaranth has been confirmed in Nebraska and it is widespread in several counties. Soybean resistant to isoxaflutole/glufosinate/glyphosate has been developed that provides additional herbicide site of action for control of herbicide-resistant weeds. The objectives of this study were to evaluate herbicide programs for control of ALS inhibitor/GR Palmer amaranth and their effect on Palmer amaranth density and biomass, as well as soybean injury and yield in isoxaflutole/glufosinate/glyphosate–resistant soybean. Field experiments were conducted in a grower’s field infested with ALS inhibitor and GR Palmer amaranth near Carleton, Nebraska, in 2018 and 2019. Isoxaflutole applied alone or mixed with sulfentrazone/pyroxasulfone, flumioxazin/pyroxasulfone, or imazethapyr/saflufenacil/pyroxasulfone provided similar control (86%–99%) of Palmer amaranth 21 d after PRE (DAPRE). At 14 d after early-POST (DAEPOST), isoxaflutole applied PRE and PRE followed by (fb) POST controlled Palmer amaranth by 10% to 63% compared to 75% to 96% control with glufosinate applied EPOST in both years. A PRE herbicide fb glufosinate controlled Palmer amaranth 80% to 99% 21 d after late-POST (DALPOST) in 2018, and reduced density 89% to 100% in 2018 and 58% to 100% in 2019 at 14 DAEPOST. No soybean injury was observed from any of the herbicide programs tested in this study. Soybean yield in 2019 was relatively higher due to higher precipitation compared with 2018 with generally no differences between herbicide programs. This research indicates that herbicide programs are available for effective control of ALS inhibitor/GR Palmer amaranth in isoxaflutole/glufosinate/glyphosate-resistant soybean.
Velvetleaf is an economically important weed in agronomic crops in Nebraska and the United States. Dicamba applied alone usually does not provide complete velvetleaf control, particularly when velvetleaf is taller than 15 cm. The objectives of this experiment were to evaluate the interaction of dicamba, fluthiacet-methyl, and glyphosate applied alone or in a mixture in two- or three-way combinations for velvetleaf control in dicamba/glyphosate–resistant (DGR) soybean and to evaluate whether velvetleaf height (≤12 cm or ≤20 cm) at the time of herbicide application influences herbicide efficacy, velvetleaf density, biomass, and soybean yield. Field experiments were conducted near Clay Center, NE in 2019 and 2020. The experiment was arranged in a split-plot with velvetleaf height (≤12 cm or ≤20 cm) as the main plot treatment and herbicides as subplot treatment. Fluthiacet provided ≥94% velvetleaf control 28 d after treatment (DAT) and ≥96% biomass reduction regardless of application rate or velvetleaf height. Velvetleaf control was 31% to 74% at 28 DAT when dicamba or glyphosate was applied alone to velvetleaf ≤20 cm tall compared with 47% to 100% control applied to ≤12-cm-tall plants. Dicamba applied alone to ≤20-cm-tall velvetleaf provided <75% control and <87% biomass reduction 28 DAT compared with ≥90% control with dicamba at 560 g ae ha−1 + fluthiacet at 7.2 g ai ha−1 or glyphosate at 1,260 g ae ha−1. Dicamba at 280 g ae ha−1 + glyphosate at 630 g ae ha−1 applied to ≤20-cm-tall velvetleaf resulted in 86% control 28 DAT compared with the expected 99% control. The interaction of dicamba + fluthiacet + glyphosate was additive for velvetleaf control and biomass reduction regardless of application rate and velvetleaf height.
Glyphosate-resistant (GR) Palmer amaranth is one of the most difficult to control weeds in soybean production fields in Nebraska and the United States. An integrated approach is required for effective management of GR Palmer amaranth. Cultural practices such as narrow row spacing might augment herbicide efficacy for management of GR Palmer amaranth. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the effect of row spacing and herbicide programs for management of GR Palmer amaranth in dicamba/glyphosate-resistant (DGR) soybean. Field experiments were conducted in a grower’s field with a uniform population of GR Palmer amaranth near Carleton, Nebraska, in 2018 and 2019. Year-by-herbicide program-by-row spacing interactions were significant for all variables; therefore, data were analyzed by year. Herbicides applied PRE controlled GR Palmer amaranth ≥95% in both years 14 d after PRE (DAPRE). Across soybean row-spacing, most PRE followed by (fb) early-POST (EPOST) herbicide programs provided 84% to 97% control of Palmer amaranth compared with most EPOST fb late-post (LPOST) programs, excluding dicamba in single and sequential applications (82% to 95% control). Mixing microencapsulated acetochlor with a POST herbicide in PRE fb EPOST herbicide programs controlled Palmer amaranth ≥93% 14 d after EPOST and ≥96% 21 d after LPOST with no effect on Palmer amaranth density. Interaction of herbicide program-by-row spacing on Palmer amaranth control was not significant; however, biomass reduction was significant at soybean harvest in 2019. The herbicide programs evaluated in this study caused no soybean injury. Due to drought conditions during a majority of the 2018 growing season, soybean yield in 2018 was reduced compared with 2019.
The complementary activity of 4-hydroxphenylpyruvate dioxygenase (HPPD) inhibitors and atrazine is well documented, but the use of atrazine is restricted in some geographic areas, including the province of Quebec in Canada, necessitating the evaluation of atrazine alternatives and their interactions with HPPD inhibitors. The objectives of this study were to determine whether mixing HPPD inhibitors with atrazine alternative photosystem II (PS II) inhibitors, such as metribuzin and linuron applied PRE or bromoxynil and bentazon applied POST, results in similar control of multiple herbicide–resistant (MHR) waterhemp [Amaranthus tuberculatus (Moq.) Sauer] in corn (Zea mays L.). Ten field trials, five with herbicides applied PRE and five with herbicides applied POST, were conducted in Ontario, Canada, in fields infested with MHR A. tuberculatus. Isoxaflutole, applied PRE, controlled MHR A. tuberculatus 58% to 76%; control increased 17% to 34% with the addition of atrazine, metribuzin, or linuron at three of five sites across 2, 4, 8, and 12 wk after application (WAA). The interaction between isoxaflutole and PS II inhibitors, applied PRE, was additive for MHR A. tuberculatus control and biomass and density reduction. Mesotrione, tolpyralate, and topramezone, applied POST, controlled MHR A. tuberculatus 54% to 59%, 61%, and 44% to 45%, respectively, at two of five sites across 4, 8, and 12 WAA. The addition of atrazine, bromoxynil, or bentazon to mesotrione improved MHR A. tuberculatus control 29%, 34%, and 22%; to tolpyralate, improved control 2%, 20%, and 10%; and to topramezone, improved control 3%, 14%, and 8%, respectively. Interactions between HPPD and PS II inhibitors were mostly additive; however, synergistic responses were observed with mesotrione + bromoxynil or bentazon, and tolpyralate + bromoxynil. Mixing atrazine alternatives metribuzin or linuron with isoxaflutole, applied PRE, and bromoxynil or bentazon with mesotrione or tolpyralate, applied POST, resulted in similar or better control of MHR A. tuberculatus in corn.
Since the commercialization of herbicide-resistant (HR) crops, primarily glyphosate-resistant crops, their adoption has increased rapidly. Multiple herbicide resistance traits in crops such as canola (Brassica napus L.), corn (Zea mays L.), cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.), and soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] have become available in recent years, and management of their volunteers needs attention to prevent interference and yield loss in rotational crops. The objectives of this review were to summarize HR crop traits in barley (Hordeum vulgare L.), canola, corn, cotton, rice (Oryza sativa L.), soybean, sugarbeet (Beta vulgaris L.), and wheat (Triticum aestivum L.); assess their potential for volunteerism; and review existing literature on the interference of HR crop volunteers, yield loss, and their management in rotational crops. HR crop volunteers are problem weeds in agronomic cropping systems, and the impact of volunteerism depends on several factors, such as crop grown in rotation, the density of volunteers, management practices, and microclimate. Interference of imidazolinone-resistant (IR) barley or wheat volunteers can be a problem in rotational crops, particularly when IR crops such as canola or wheat are grown. HR canola volunteers are abundant in the Northern Great Plains due to high fecundity, seed loss before or during harvest, and secondary seed dormancy, and they can interfere in crops grown in rotation such as flax (Linum usitatissimum L.), field peas (Pisum sativum L.), and soybean. HR corn volunteers are competitive in crops grown in rotation such as corn, cotton, soybean, and sugarbeet, with yield loss depending on the density of HR corn volunteers. Volunteers of HR cotton, rice, soybean, and sugarbeet are not major concerns and can be controlled with existing herbicides. Herbicide options would be limited if the crop volunteers are multiple HR; therefore, recording the cultivar planted the previous year and selecting the appropriate herbicide are important. The increasing use of 2,4-D, dicamba, glufosinate, and glyphosate in North American cropping systems requires research on herbicide interactions and alternative herbicides or methods for controlling multiple HR crop volunteers.
Glyphosate-resistant (GR) Palmer amaranth is a troublesome weed that can emerge throughout the soybean growing season in Nebraska and several other regions of the United States. Late-emerging Palmer amaranth plants can produce seeds, thus replenishing the soil seedbank. The objectives of this study were to evaluate single or sequential applications of labeled POST herbicides such as acifluorfen, dicamba, a fomesafen and fluthiacet-methyl premix, glyphosate, and lactofen on GR Palmer amaranth control, density, biomass, seed production, and seed viability, as well as grain yield of dicamba- and glyphosate-resistant (DGR) soybean. Field experiments were conducted in a grower’s field infested with GR Palmer amaranth near Carleton, NE, in 2018 and 2019, with no PRE herbicide applied. Acifluorfen, dicamba, a premix of fomesafen and fluthiacet-methyl, glyphosate, or lactofen were applied POST in single or sequential applications between the V4 and R6 soybean growth stages, with timings based on product labels. Dicamba applied at V4 or in sequential applications at V4 followed by R1 or R3 controlled GR Palmer amaranth 91% to 100% at soybean harvest, reduced Palmer amaranth density to as low as 2 or fewer plants m−2, reduced seed production to 557 to 2,911 seeds per female plant, and resulted in the highest soybean yield during both years of the study. Sequential applications of acifluorfen, fomesafen and fluthiacet premix, or lactofen were not as effective as dicamba for GR Palmer amaranth control; however, they reduced seed production similar to dicamba. On the basis of the results of this study, we conclude that dicamba was effective for controlling GR Palmer amaranth and reduced density, biomass, and seed production without DGR soybean injury. Herbicides evaluated in this study had no effect on Palmer amaranth seed viability.