Among 469 US military veterans with an Escherichia coli clinical isolate (2012–2013), we explored healthcare and non-healthcare risk factors for having E. coli sequence type 131 and its H30 subclone (ST131-H30). Overall, 66 (14%) isolates were ST131; 51 (77%) of these were ST131-H30. After adjustment for healthcare-associated factors, ST131 remained positively associated with medical lines and nursing home residence. After adjustment for environmental factors, ST131 remained associated with wild animal contact (positive), meat consumption (negative) and pet cat exposure (negative). Thus, ST131 was associated predominantly with healthcare-associated exposures, while non-ST131 E. coli were associated with some environmental exposures.