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Growers have been experimenting with cover crop termination timings to maximize weed suppression and potentially reduce herbicide inputs in soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.]. A field study was replicated three times from 2018 through 2021 in South Charleston, OH, to evaluate different management strategies involving a cereal rye (Secale cereale L.) cover crop. The objectives were to determine the effects of cereal rye seeding rate (0, 50, and 100 kg ha−1), management program (preplant, postplant, and delayed), and soybean residual herbicide (flumioxazin + chlorimuron ethyl and no herbicide) on cover crop, weed, and soybean parameters. The preplant program consisted of cereal rye terminated 7 d before planting (DBP) + a postemergence application. The postplant program consisted of cereal rye terminated 7 d after planting (DAP) + a postemergence application. In the delayed program, saflufenacil was applied in April and cereal rye was terminated 21 DAP, and there was no postemergence application. Giant foxtail (Setaria faberi Herrm.) density was reduced by the presence of cereal rye, averaged over other factors, regardless of seeding rate. Cereal rye seeding rate did not affect giant ragweed (Ambrosia trifida L.) density. The delayed management program was generally associated with the lowest weed density, but weed density was often similar in the postplant program. Setaria faberi density was lower in treatments that included a residual herbicide. Residual soybean herbicide use did not affect density of A. trifida. Terminating cereal rye after soybean planting resulted in increased soybean yield in 2019 and reduced yield in 2020, compared with preplant rye termination. These data suggest that adjusting the cereal rye management program may have a greater effect on weed suppression than adjustments to seeding rate. Delaying termination of cereal rye can aid in the suppression of weeds, but a comprehensive herbicide program was necessary to provide adequate (>85%) weed control.
On-site surveys of weed populations provide information on the relative occurrence and density of weeds that can be useful to growers in that region. Data generated by weed surveys can aid in the management of weed issues by monitoring the movement of problem weeds and forecasting areas susceptible to infestations. Currently, on-site surveys are often performed on a small scale, within single fields or counties. Questionnaire surveys are helpful for assessing relative abundance but do not always provide detailed information on weed distribution in time or space. A survey was conducted annually in Ohio from 2013 through 2017 in 49 counties with soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] production to assess the late-season occurrence of horseweed [Conyza canadensis (L.) Cronquist]. The objectives of this research were to: (1) determine the frequency, level of infestation, and distribution of C. canadensis in soybean fields in the primary soybean-producing Ohio counties over 5 yr; and (2) identify significant spatial clusters or movement trends over time. Conyza canadensis was encountered in each county from 2013 through 2017. Spatial cores of interest, or counties identified as having significant levels of C. canadensis infestations or a lack thereof relative to surrounding counties, were identified in all years except 2017. The lowest frequency of C. canadensis encountered at all rating levels occurred in 2017, which coincided with second-highest frequency of infestations (highest density level) among years. There was no distinct distribution or pattern of C. canadensis movement within the state from year to year, but there was an increase in counties with infestations over time compared with the early years of the survey when many counties had few to no infestations. These results suggest that C. canadensis persists as a common and troublesome threat to Ohio soybean producers and that growers should continue making C. canadensis management a priority when developing weed control programs.
Current recommendations for the control of glyphosate-resistant horseweed [Conyza canadensis (L.) Cronquist var. canadensis] in soybeans [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] consist of comprehensive herbicide programs, which often include herbicide applications outside the soybean growing season. Integration of cover crops with herbicides could potentially improve C. canadensis control and allow for a reduction in herbicide inputs. Two separate field studies were conducted from 2016 through 2018 with the objectives of: (1) determining the effect of planting date and seeding rate of a cereal rye (Secale cereale L.) cover crop on C. canadensis population density and control in the subsequent soybean crop; and (2) determining whether the cover crop could replace a fall herbicide treatment or allow for a reduction in the use of spring-applied residual herbicides. There was no effect of rye planting date, late September versus late October, on C. canadensis density in either study. In 2016 to 2017, C. canadensis density was greater in the absence of a rye cover crop in both studies, but otherwise not affected by seeding rates of 50 versus 100 kg ha−1. In the 2017 to 2018 season, the presence of rye resulted in an increased C. canadensis density in the spring residual herbicide study (Study I), and had no effect in the fall herbicide study (Study II). Conyza canadensis densities were lowest in the treatments where a comprehensive spring residual or fall herbicide treatment had been applied, averaged over rye planting date and seeding rate. Earlier-planted rye at a higher seeding rate produced the most biomass but did not result in lower C. canadensis densities. These results suggest that cereal rye planted at a density of 50 kg ha−1 as a cover crop before no-till soybeans may be sufficient to reduce glyphosate-resistant C. canadensis plant density, but cannot be relied upon to reduce the need for fall herbicide treatments and spring residual programs.
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