Although resilience varies depending on the specific type of adverse situation faced by the individual, to date resilience questionnaires do not consider its situational character. This study aims to develop and validate the Situated Subjective Resilience Questionnaire for Adults (SSRQA), which assesses resilience in five different adverse contexts. A total of 584 Spanish adults (including general population and clinical samples individuals) completed the SSRQA and other measures of resilience, optimism, and self-efficacy. Confirmatory factor analysis showed that the SSRQA structure fitted the situational model better (χ2/df = 1.90; CFI = .96; TLI = .95; RMSEA = .07) than the non-situational version (χ2/df = 4.99; CFI = .79; TLI = .76; RMSEA = .15). The SSRQA was shown to be reliable (α = .90) and to be significantly and positively correlated with other resilience measures (p < .001) and, to a lower degree, with optimism and self-efficacy (p < .001). Degree of exposure to each adverse situation was negatively correlated with resilience in the face of that situation (p < .05), supporting a vulnerability to stress model. The SSRQA has been demonstrated to be a reliable and valid situated measure for resilience towards different adverse contexts.