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On April 15, 2013, two improvised explosive devices (IEDs) exploded at the Boston Marathon and 264 patients were treated at 26 hospitals in the aftermath. Despite the extent of injuries sustained by victims, there was no subsequent mortality for those treated in hospitals. Leadership decisions and actions in major trauma centers were a critical factor in this response.
The objective of this investigation was to describe and characterize organizational dynamics and leadership themes immediately after the bombings by utilizing a novel structured sequential qualitative approach consisting of a focus group followed by subsequent detailed interviews and combined expert analysis.
Across physician leaders representing 7 hospitals, several leadership and management themes emerged from our analysis: communications and volunteer surges, flexibility, the challenge of technology, and command versus collaboration.
Disasters provide a distinctive context in which to study the robustness and resilience of response systems. Therefore, in the aftermath of a large-scale crisis, every effort should be invested in forming a coalition and collecting critical lessons so they can be shared and incorporated into best practices and preparations. Novel communication strategies, flexible leadership structures, and improved information systems will be necessary to reduce morbidity and mortality during future events. (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2015;9:489–495)
In this paper, the design analysis of a multi-way and high-power radial combiner is presented. This combiner incorporates a rigid stripline-type combining structure. This analysis, based on an equivalent circuit model and segmentation of the radial transmission line, provides simple design formulae. The developed methodology, after fine-tuning with the help of an electromagnetic full-wave simulator, is physically demonstrated by developing a high-power (16 kW average) and high combining-efficiency (98.9%) 16-way combiner at the center frequency of 505.8 MHz. Its efficient and repeatable performance, fabrication-friendly structure, and absence of the heat-related problem, caused by the isolation resistor, are the main features of this design.
We report controlled modifications in the semiconductor-to-metal transition characteristics of VO2 single-crystal thin films induced by swift heavy ion (SHI) irradiation with varying ion fluences. At very high energies of ions (200 MeV Au), the electronic stopping (∼2009 eV/Å) dominates over nuclear stopping (∼16 eV/Å). Under these extreme electronic excitation conditions caused by electronic stopping and the passage of SHIs through the entire thickness of the film, creation of certain unique type of defects and disordered regions occurs. X-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy, infrared transmission spectroscopy, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and electrical measurements were performed to investigate the characteristics and role of these defects on structural, optical, and electrical properties of VO2 thin films. XPS and electrical resistivity measurements suggest that the ion irradiation induces localized defect states that appear to correlate well with the creation of disordered regions in the VO2 thin films. The high-energy heavy-ion irradiation changes the transition characteristics drastically from a first-order to a second-order transition (electronic—Mott type). The low-temperature conductance data for these ion-irradiated films fit well with the quasiamorphous model for resistivity of VO2, where ion irradiation is believed to create mid-bandgap defect states.
Thin films of vanadium dioxide (VO2) exhibit an interesting semiconductor to metal transition (SMT) when heated above ˜680C in which its resistivity changes by 3-4 orders of magnitude and its transmittance for IR wavelengths drops drastically. Integration of these thin films with Si (100) substrate is of immense technological importance due to its potential applications in sensor and memory based devices. Using pulsed laser deposition (PLD) we have demonstrated in this study that thin films of VO2 can be grown epitaxially on Si (100) substrate using an intermediate tetragonal Yttrium-Stabilized Zirconia (YSZ) layer without any further annealing. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and cross-section transmission electron microscopy studies were performed on the films and they are found to be of highly epitaxial nature. Electrical resistivity measurement were carried out using the four-point probe method and SMT parameters were extracted using Gaussian fit of the data. The S-M transition parameters are in close proximity with parameters obtained from vanadium oxide films deposited on oxide based substrates such as Al2O3 or TiO2.
Follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH) are commonly added to maturation media to improve cumulus expansion known to be a predictor of oocyte maturation. Therefore, effects of various concentrations of FSH (1000 ng/ml), LH (1000 ng/ml) and FSH + LH (1000 ng/ml each) in comparison with control (without FSH + LH) cultured oocytes were investigated. FSH and LH (1000 ng/ml each) induced significantly more cumulus expansion and polar body numbers, as compared with control and treatments of 1000 ng/ml FSH and 1000 ng/ml LH alone. Expression of FSH receptor (r), LHr and Cx43 mRNAs was determined by real-time PCR in cumulus–oocyte complexes (COCs) and denuded oocytes at different maturation times. Expression of all three genes was higher in COCs compared with denuded oocytes, confirming the importance of cumulus cells in oocyte maturation. FSHr and connexin 43 (Cx43) mRNA abundance in both COCs and denuded oocytes was highest at 0–6 h of maturation and decreased subsequently. However, LHr mRNA abundance increased from 6 h up to 24 h of maturation. The study concluded that FSH, LH receptors and Cx43 gene expression regulation is an index related to oocyte maturation.
A case of synchronous cystic teratomas presented with the complaints of a slow-growing facial mass and forward protrusion of the right eye since birth. The patient was examined thoroughly and subjected to magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scan. The MRI scan revealed the presence of two separate cysts in the right orbit and right temporal fossa. The patient was operated by a combined effort of ophthalmologists and otorhinolaryngologists. The cysts were excised and subjected to pathological examination. The histopathological survey revealed both the cysts to be mature cystic teratomas similar to each other. This coexistence of a primary temporal fossa teratoma with an orbital teratoma is the first of its kind and to the best of our knowledge has not been reported before.
Phase relations at atmospheric pressure in the pseudobinary join KAlSi2O6 (Lc)-NaAlSi3O8(Ab) and in the pseudoternary join Lc-Ab-CaAl2Si2O8(An) indicate that leucite is in-compatible with Na-feldspar. In the former join leucite can exist with an alkali feldspar of maximum albite content Ab54. In the Lc-Ab-An join, leucite only coexists with ternary feldspars with high An contents (approximately An50). Under PH2O conditions leucites may only coexist with alkali feldspars even poorer in Ab than those found at atmospheric pressure. Rare occurrences of coexisting leucite and Na-feldspar in nature have probably not crystallized directly from a melt but may have formed by a process of alkali ion exchange; or they may be unstable assemblages. No support can be found for the suggestions based on thermochemical calculations that albite and leucite are compatible at high temperatures.
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