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Why is African Studies in North America dominated by white scholars? In this reflection piece, the 2018 president of the African Studies Association revisits the organization’s sixty-year history, exposing the processes by which white privilege was hardwired into African Studies at the organization’s founding in 1957 and then secured first by the displacement of the much older tradition of African American scholarship on Africa and second by the “recolonization American-style” of knowledge production on the continent in the postcolonial era.
This final section focuses less on theory, theology, and ethics and more on the practical implications if the church were to abandon JWT. After such sustained critique, it is crucial to reiterate the points made earlier regarding how many just-war thinkers, like ourselves, affirm what is in the Appeal. We agree with and support most of what it says. Where we part company with the Appeal is over the two sentences and one bullet point (forty-five words) outlined above.
The revised Dietary Guideline Index (DGI-2013) scores individuals’ diets according to their compliance with the Australian Dietary Guideline (ADG). This cross-sectional study assesses the diet quality of 794 community-dwelling men aged 74 years and older, living in Sydney, Australia participating in the Concord Health and Ageing in Men Project; it also examines sociodemographic and lifestyle factors associated with DGI-2013 scores; it studies associations between DGI-2103 scores and the following measures: homoeostasis model assessment – insulin resistance, LDL-cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, TAG, blood pressure, waist:hip ratio, BMI, number of co-morbidities and medications and frailty status while also accounting for the effect of ethnicity in these relationships. Median DGI-2013 score was 93·7 (54·4, 121·2); most individuals failed to meet recommendations for vegetables, dairy products and alternatives, added sugar, unsaturated fat and SFA, fluid and discretionary foods. Lower education, income, physical activity levels and smoking were associated with low scores. After adjustments for confounders, high DGI-2013 scores were associated with lower HDL-cholesterol, lower waist:hip ratios and lower probability of being frail. Proxies of good health (fewer co-morbidities and medications) were not associated with better compliance to the ADG. However, in participants with a Mediterranean background, low DGI-2013 scores were not generally associated with poorer health. Older men demonstrated poor diet quality as assessed by the DGI-2013, and the association between dietary guidelines and health measures and indices may be influenced by ethnic background.
To examine intakes and variety of fruit and vegetables consumed by Australian young adults, also assessing differences by meal occasion and sociodemographic characteristics.
Secondary analysis of cross-sectional 24 h recall data collected through the 2011–12 National Nutrition and Physical Activity Survey. Crude means and proportions consuming fruits and vegetables were calculated. Pearson χ2 tests, Kruskal–Wallis analyses and linear regression models were used to assess differences in mean intakes by age, BMI and sociodemographic variables. The variety eaten was determined based on the number of fruit and vegetable subgroups consumed.
Representative sample of metropolitan and rural areas across Australia.
Respondents aged 18–34 years were included (n 2397).
Mean daily intake of fruit (128 g/0·9 servings) and vegetables (205 g/2·7 servings) was lower than the minimum recommended intake set at 2 and 5 servings, respectively. Age was positively associated with fruit and vegetable intake (P=0·002, P<0·001), with 18–24-year-olds reporting the poorest vegetable variety compared with 25–29- and 30–34-year-olds (P=0·002). When controlling for total energy, males consumed less vegetables than females (P=0·002). A large proportion of the 15 % of respondents who consumed adequate amounts of fruits and vegetables on the day prior to the survey reported intake across all meal occasions (P<0·001).
Fruit and vegetable intake is suboptimal among Australian young adults. An age-appropriate campaign is recommended to target increased consumption, particularly for those aged 18–24 years, with opportunity to promote increased variety and consumption across the day.
Animal-source foods (ASF) have the potential to enhance the nutritional adequacy of cereal-based diets in low- and middle-income countries, through the provision of high-quality protein and bioavailable micronutrients. The development of guidelines for including ASF in local diets requires an understanding of the nutrient content of available resources. This article reviews food composition tables (FCT) used in sub-Saharan Africa, examining the spectrum of ASF reported and exploring data sources for each reference. Compositional data are shown to be derived from a small number of existing data sets from analyses conducted largely in high-income nations, often many decades previously. There are limitations in using such values, which represent the products of intensively raised animals of commercial breeds, as a reference in resource-poor settings where indigenous breed livestock are commonly reared in low-input production systems, on mineral-deficient soils and not receiving nutritionally balanced feed. The FCT examined also revealed a lack of data on the full spectrum of ASF, including offal and wild foods, which correspond to local food preferences and represent valuable dietary resources in food-deficient settings. Using poultry products as an example, comparisons are made between compositional data from three high-income nations, and potential implications of differences in the published values for micronutrients of public health significance, including Fe, folate and vitamin A, are discussed. It is important that those working on nutritional interventions and on developing dietary recommendations for resource-poor settings understand the limitations of current food composition data and that opportunities to improve existing resources are more actively explored and supported.
A single question (SQ) and a twenty-eight-item FFQ to measure takeaway meal intake were compared with two 7-d estimated food records (EFR; reference method). Test methods were completed after the reference period and repeated 6–8 d later for repeatability. The SQ asked about intake of high-SFA takeaway meals. FFQ items included low- and high-SFA meals. Test methods were compared with EFR for sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values, using a goal of ≤1 high-SFA weekly takeaway meals. Bland–Altman analyses were used to check agreement between measurement approaches, the κ coefficient was used to summarise the observed level of agreement, and Spearman’s correlation was used to assess the degree to which instruments ranked individuals. Young adults were recruited from two universities, and 109 participants (61 % female) completed the study. The mean age was 24·4 (sd 4·9) years, and the mean BMI was 23·5 (sd 3·7) kg/m2. The SQ and the FFQ had a sensitivity of 97 and 83 % and a specificity of 46 and 92 %, respectively. Both methods exhibited moderate correlation for measuring total and high-SFA takeaway meal intakes (rs ranging from 0·64 to 0·80). Neither instrument could measure precise, absolute intake at the group or individual level. Test methods ranged from fair (κw=0·24) to moderate agreement (κw=0·59). The repeatability for all was acceptable. The FFQ identified excessive high-SFA takeaway meal intake and measured individuals’ category for total and high-SFA takeaway intakes. Both methods are suitable for ranking individuals for total or high-SFA takeaway meal intakes.
Automation of dietary assessment can reduce limitations of established methodologies, by alleviating participant and researcher burden. Designed as a research tool, the electronic Dietary Intake Assessment (e-DIA) is a food record in mobile phone application format. The present study aimed to examine the relative validity of the e-DIA with the 24-h recall method to estimate intake of food groups. A sample of eighty university students aged 19–24 years recorded 5 d of e-DIA and 3 d of recall within this 5-d period. The three matching days of dietary data were used for analysis. Food intake data were disaggregated and apportioned to one of eight food groups. Median intakes of food groups were similar between the methods, and strong correlations were found (mean: 0·79, range: 0·69–0·88). Cross-classification by tertiles produced a high level of exact agreement (mean: 71 %, range: 65–75 %), and weighted κ values were moderate to good (range: 0·54–0·71). Although mean differences (e-DIA–recall) were small (range: –13 to 23 g), limits of agreement (LOA) were relatively large (e.g. for vegetables, mean difference: –4 g, LOA: –159 to 151 g). The Bland–Altman plots showed robust agreement, with minimum bias. This analysis supports the use of e-DIA as an alternative to the repeated 24-h recall method for ranking individuals’ food group intake.
Obesity in young adults is an increasing health problem in Australia and many other countries. Evidence-based information is needed to guide interventions that reduce the obesity-promoting elements in tertiary-education environments. In a food environmental audit survey, 252 outlets were audited across seven institutions: three universities and four technical and further education institutions campuses. A scoring instrument called the food environment-quality index was developed and used to assess all food outlets on these campuses. Information was collated on the availability, accessibility and promotion of foods and beverages and a composite score (maximum score=148; higher score indicates healthier outlets) was calculated. Each outlet and the overall campus were ranked into tertiles based on their ‘healthiness’. Differences in median scores for each outcome measure were compared between institutions and outlet types using one-way ANOVA with post hoc Scheffe’s testing, χ2 tests, Kruskal–Wallis H test and the Mann–Whitney U test. Binomial logistic regressions were used to compare the proportion of healthy v. unhealthy food categories across different types of outlets. Overall, the most frequently available items were sugar-sweetened beverages (20 % of all food/drink items) followed by chocolates (12 %), high-energy (>600 kJ/serve) foods (10 %), chips (10 %) and confectionery (10 %). Healthy food and beverages were observed to be less available, accessible and promoted than unhealthy options. The median score across all outlets was 72 (interquartile range=7). Tertiary-education food environments are dominated by high-energy, nutrient-poor foods and beverages. Interventions to decrease availability, accessibility and promotion of unhealthy foods are needed.
Supermarket receipts have the potential to provide prospective, objective information about the household food supply. The aim of this study was to develop an index to estimate population diet quality using food purchase data. Supermarket receipt data of 1 month were available for 836 adults from a corporate office of a large retail chain. Participants were aged 19–65 years (mean 37·6 (sd 9·3) years), 56 % were female and 63 % were overweight or obese. A scoring system (Healthy Trolley Index (HETI)) was developed to compare food expenditure with the Australian Guide to Healthy Eating. Monthly expenditure per food group, as a proportion of total food expenditure, was compared with food group recommendations, and a HETI score was calculated to estimate overall compliance with guidelines. Participants spent the greatest proportion on discretionary foods, which are high in fat/sugar (34·8 %), followed by meat including beef and chicken (17·0 %), fresh and frozen vegetables (13·5 %) and dairy foods (11·3 %). The average HETI score ranged from 22·6 to 93·1 (out of 100, mean 58·8 (sd 10·9)). There was a stepwise decrease in expenditure on discretionary foods by increasing HETI quintile, whereas expenditure on fruit and vegetables increased with HETI quintile (P<0·001). The HETI score was lower in obese compared with normal-weight participants (55·9 v. 60·3; P<0·01). Obese participants spent more on discretionary foods (38·3 v. 32·7 %; P<0·01) and less on fruits and vegetables (19·3 v. 22·2 %; P<0·01). The HETI may be a useful tool to describe supermarket purchasing patterns and quality of the household food supply with application for consumer feedback to assist improved quality of foods purchased.
Dense retinotopy data sets were obtained by microelectrode visual receptive field mapping in dorsal and lateral visual cortex of anesthetized owl monkeys. The cortex was then physically flatmounted and stained for myelin or cytochrome oxidase. Retinotopic mapping data were digitized, interpolated to a uniform grid, analyzed using the visual field sign technique—which locally distinguishes mirror image from nonmirror image visual field representations—and correlated with the myelin or cytochrome oxidase patterns. The region between V2 (nonmirror) and MT (nonmirror) contains three areas—DLp (mirror), DLi (nonmirror), and DLa/MTc (mirror). DM (mirror) was thin anteroposteriorly, and its reduced upper field bent somewhat anteriorly away from V2. DI (nonmirror) directly adjoined V2 (nonmirror) and contained only an upper field representation that also adjoined upper field DM (mirror). Retinotopy was used to define area VPP (nonmirror), which adjoins DM anteriorly, area FSTd (mirror), which adjoins MT ventrolaterally, and TP (mirror), which adjoins MT and DLa/MTc dorsoanteriorly. There was additional retinotopic and architectonic evidence for five more subdivisions of dorsal and lateral extrastriate cortex—TA (nonmirror), MSTd (mirror), MSTv (nonmirror), FSTv (nonmirror), and PP (mirror). Our data appear quite similar to data from marmosets, though our field sign-based areal subdivisions are slightly different. The region immediately anterior to the superiorly located central lower visual field V2 varied substantially between individuals, but always contained upper fields immediately touching lower visual field V2. This region appears to vary even more between species. Though we provide a summary diagram, given within- and between-species variation, it should be regarded as a guide to parsing complex retinotopy rather than a literal representation of any individual, or as the only way to agglomerate the complex mosaic of partial upper and lower field, mirror- and nonmirror-image patches into areas.
The aim of the present study was to examine the associations of sugary drink consumption and its substitution with alternative beverages with body weight gain among young children predisposed to future weight gain. Secondary analysis of the Healthy Start Study, a 1·5-year randomised controlled trial designed to prevent overweight among Danish children aged 2−6 years (n 366), was carried out. Multivariate linear regression models were used to investigate the associations of beverage consumption with change in body weight (Δweight) or BMI(ΔBMI) z-score. Substitution models were used to extrapolate the influence of replacing sugary drinks with alternative beverages (water, milk and diet drinks) on Δweight or ΔBMI z-score. Sugary drink intake at baseline and substitution of sugary drinks with milk were associated with both Δweight and ΔBMI z-score. Every 100 g/d increase in sugary drink intake was associated with 0·10 kg and 0·06 unit increases in body weight (P=0·048) and BMI z-score (P=0·04), respectively. Substitution of 100 g/d sugary drinks with 100 g/d milk was inversely associated with Δweight (β=−0·16 kg; P=0·045) and ΔBMI z-score (β=−0·07 units; P=0·04). The results of this study suggest that sugary drink consumption was associated with body weight gain among young children with high predisposition for future overweight. In line with the current recommendations, sugary drinks, whether high in added or natural sugar, should be discouraged to help prevent childhood obesity. Milk may be a good alternative to sugary drinks with regard to weight management among young obesity-predisposed children.
Previous research shows that older men tend to have lower nutritional intakes and higher risk of under-nutrition compared with younger men. The objectives of this study were to describe energy and nutrient intakes, assess nutritional risk and investigate factors associated with poor intake of energy and key nutrients in community-dwelling men aged ≥75 years participating in the Concord Health and Ageing in Men Project – a longitudinal cohort study on older men in Sydney, Australia. A total of 794 men (mean age 81·4 years) had a detailed diet history interview, which was carried out by a dietitian. Dietary adequacy was assessed by comparing median intakes with nutrient reference values (NRV): estimated average requirement, adequate intake or upper level of intake. Attainment of NRV of total energy and key nutrients in older age (protein, Fe, Zn, riboflavin, Ca and vitamin D) was incorporated into a ‘key nutrients’ variable dichotomised as ‘good’ (≥5) or ‘poor’ (≤4). Using logistic regression modelling, we examined associations between key nutrients with factors known to affect food intake. Median energy intake was 8728 kJ (P5=5762 kJ, P95=12 303 kJ), and mean BMI was 27·7 (sd 4·0) kg/m2. Men met their NRV for most nutrients. However, only 1 % of men met their NRV for vitamin D, only 19 % for Ca, only 30 % for K and only 33 % for dietary fibre. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that only country of birth was significantly associated with poor nutritional intake. Dietary intakes were adequate for most nutrients; however, only half of the participants met the NRV of ≥5 key nutrients.
On the 26th of December last, about half-past 11 A.M., a light snow shower fell in Edinburgh, and lasted about half an hour. The air was at the time still, and the sky overcast with a thin haze, while the thermometer stood at many degrees below the freezing point. The appearance of the snow was very remarkable. It fell in loose open flakes, and lay upon the surrounding objects in little masses like tufts of exquisitely white, soft and light down.
When the reproductive phenomena of Alcyonella, as manifested both in gemmation and true generation, are viewed in their proper sequence, they will be found to present a series of acts which admit of an obvious comparison with the class of phenomena commonly known as the “alternation of generations.”
From the fecundated ovum an embryo is produced in the ordinary way after the segmentation of the vitellus. In this embryo, which presents at first the form of a locomotive ciliated sac, sexual organs are never directly developed, but there are produced within it by a process of gemmation the following series of zooids.
This communication was intended by the author to be in continuation of a former paper on the same subject, read before the Society during the previous session, and contained the following additional notices:—
The gonophore of Sertularia polyzonias consists of an oval capsule slightly corrugated transversely, with a short tubular, obscurely 4-toothed aperture, and having its axis occupied by a blastostyle, bearing in all the specimens examined a single sporosac.
In this communication the author called attention to the fact of his having discovered, in April last, in the Clyde, near Rothesay, numerous specimens of an Appendicularia, invested with the remarkable appendage, named “Haus” by Mertens, who originally described it in specimens captured in the North Pacific, near Behring's Straits, but which no one since his time had seen, though Appendicularia had become a subject of careful and elaborate investigation in the hands of several of the leading zoologists of the present day.
Professor Allman exhibited a portion of a pelvis of a seal, which had been recently obtained from the Pleistocene deposits in the neighbourhood of Kirkaldy, and sent to him for determination by Mr Martin Eigney of that place.
From a note received from Mr Rigney, it appears that the bone was found in the Tyrie clay field, about two miles west of Kirkaldy, and about a quarter of a mile from the shore of the Firth, and that it lay 18 or 19 feet below the surface of the soil, and about 30 feet above the present level of high-water. It was unaccompanied by any other remains.
The author stated, as the results of some experiments which he had made on the phosphorescence of a species of Beröe (Idyia) which abounded during the last summer in the Firth of Forth, that the light is never emitted as long as the animal is exposed to daylight; and that withdrawal from the daylight for some time is necessary, in order to impart to the Beröe the property of phosphorescence.
The author maintained that the genus Pedicellina, notwithstanding the circular arrangement of its tentacula, does not properly belong to the infundibulate Polyzoa at all, but is in reality hippocrepian, of which type, however, it presents a remarkable modification. The intestine at first sight appears to terminate within the margin of a orbicular lophophore, and, consequently, within the circle of tentacula, and thus to present a striking exception to the admitted plan of the Polyzoa. It was shown, however, that the anomaly which thus seems to exist was only apparent, for the lophophore, when carefully examined, is found to be constructed on the hippocrepian type, with the tentacula confined to the outer or convex margin, and the arms of the crescent united at their extremities so as to enclose a space, around which the tentacula will then be arranged in an uninterrupted circle, and within which the intestine opens, its termination being thus quite normal, and properly external to the lophophore.