To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure firstname.lastname@example.org
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
To explore eating patterns and snacking among US infants, toddlers and pre-school children.
The Feeding Infants and Toddlers Study (FITS) 2008 was a cross-sectional national survey of children aged 6–47 months, weighted to reflect US age and racial/ethnic distributions. Dietary data were collected using one multiple-pass 24h recall. Eating occasions were categorized as meals, snacks or other (comprised of all feedings of breast milk and/or infant formula). The percentage of children consuming meals and snacks and their contribution to total energy, the number of snacks consumed per day, energy and nutrients coming from snacks and the most commonly consumed snacks were evaluated by age.
A national sample of US infants, toddlers and pre-school children.
A total of 2891 children in five age groups: 6–8 months (n 249), 9–11 months (n 256), 12–23 months (n 925), 24–35 months (n 736) and 36–47 months (n 725).
Snacks were already consumed by 37 % of infants beginning at 6 months; by 12 months of age, nearly 95 % were consuming at least one snack per day. Snacks provided 25 % of daily energy from the age of 12 months. Approximately 40 % of toddlers and pre-school children consumed fruit and cow’s milk during snacks; about 25 % consumed 100 % fruit juice. Cookies were introduced early; by 24 months, 57 % consumed cookies or candy in a given day.
Snacking is common, contributing significantly to daily energy and nutrient needs of toddlers and pre-school children. There is room for improvement, however, with many popular snacking choices contributing to excess sugar.
Away-from-home foods have been shown to have lower nutritional quality and larger portion sizes than many foods prepared at home. We aimed to describe energy and nutrient intakes among 2–13-year-old Mexican children by eating location (at home and away from home), overall, by socio-economic status (SES) and by urbanicity.
Dietary intake was collected via one 24 h recall in the 2012 Mexican National Health and Nutrition Survey (ENSANUT). Location was reported for each food consumed. Results were adjusted for sex, day of recall, region, weight status, SES and urbanicity.
Mexico (nationally representative).
Children aged 2–5 years (n 1905) and 6–13 years (n 2868).
Children consumed the majority of daily energy at home (89% of 2–5-year-olds; 82 % of 6–13-year-olds). The most common away-from-home eating location was school (22 % of 2–5-year-olds; 43 % of 6–13-year-olds), followed by the street (14 % of 2–5-year-olds; 13 % of 6–13-year-olds). The most common foods consumed away from home were wheat/rice and corn mixed dishes, sugar-sweetened beverages, pastries/candy/desserts, milk (2–5-year-olds only) and salty snacks (6–13-year-olds). Multivariate models showed that high-SES 2–5-year-olds consumed 14 % of daily energy away from home v. 8 % among low-SES 2–5-year-olds, and high-SES 6–13-year-olds consumed 21 % of daily energy away from home v. 14 % among low-SES 6–13 year-olds. There were no differences by urban residence.
Among Mexican children, most foods and beverages were consumed at home. However, the percentage of foods consumed or purchased away from home increased with age and with SES.
To develop and validate a new dietary assessment tool, the focused recall, and to use this to measure co-consumption of carotenoid-containing fruits and vegetables with savory snacks.
Participants completed a telephone-administered focused recall and a 24-hour recall on the same day. We compared mean estimates of fruit, vegetable, savory snack and carotenoid consumption from both instruments. We also assessed the ability of each method to measure co-consumption of carotenoids with full-fat, reduced/non-fat and olestra-containing savory snacks.
Setting and subjects:
Data are from 245 male and 244 female adult participants in the Olestra Post-Marketing Surveillance Study (OPMSS).
The mean (± SD) intake of fruit was 1.8 (1.1) servings day−1 from the focused recall and 1.6 (1.4) servings day−1 from the 24-hour recall (r = 0.56). The mean vegetable intake was 2.1 (1.3) and 2.2 (1.7) servings day−1 (r = 0.42), respectively, from each instrument. Estimates of total carotenoid and β-carotene intake were within 5% of each other (r = 0.63 for total carotenoids and r = 0.70 for β-carotene). Both instruments estimated that approximately 14% of total daily carotenoids were co-consumed with savory snacks (r = 0.63).
The focused recall provides valid information about fruit, vegetable and savory snack consumption and allows researchers to examine associated eating patterns more easily.
Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this to your organisation's collection.