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This book presents a unique, interdisciplinary approach to disaster risk research, combining cutting-edge natural science and social science methodologies. Bringing together leading scientists, policy makers and practitioners from around the world, it presents the risks of global hazards such as volcanoes, seismic events, landslides, hurricanes, precipitation floods and space weather, and provides real-world hazard case studies from Latin America, the Caribbean, Africa, the Middle East, Asia and the Pacific region. Avoiding complex mathematics, the authors provide insight into topics such as the vulnerability of society, disaster risk reduction policy, relations between disaster policy and climate change, adaptation to hazards, and (re)insurance approaches to extreme events. This is a key resource for academic researchers and graduate students in a wide range of disciplines linked to hazard and risk studies, including geophysics, volcanology, hydrology, atmospheric science, geomorphology, oceanography and remote sensing, and for professionals and policy makers working in disaster prevention and mitigation.
Written as both a textbook and a handy reference, this text deliberately avoids complex mathematics assuming only basic familiarity with geodynamic theory and calculus. Here, the authors have brought together the key numerical techniques for geodynamic modeling, demonstrations of how to solve problems including lithospheric deformation, mantle convection and the geodynamo. Building from a discussion of the fundamental principles of mathematical and numerical modeling, the text moves into critical examinations of each of the different techniques before concluding with a detailed analysis of specific geodynamic applications. Key differences between methods and their respective limitations are also discussed - showing readers when and how to apply a particular method in order to produce the most accurate results. This is an essential text for advanced courses on numerical and computational modeling in geodynamics and geophysics, and an invaluable resource for researchers looking to master cutting-edge techniques. Links to supplementary computer codes are available online.
Introduction to scientific computing and computational geodynamics
Present life without computers is almost impossible: industry and agriculture, government and media, transportation and insurance are major users of computational power. The earliest and still principal users of computers are researchers who solve problems in science and engineering or more specifically, who obtain solutions of mathematical models that represent some physical situation. The methods, tools and theories required to obtain such solutions are together called scientific computing, and the use of these methods, tools and theories to resolve scientific problems is referred to as computational science. A majority of these methods, tools, and theories were developed in mathematics well before the advent of computers. This set of mathematical theories and methods is an essential part of numerical mathematics and constitutes a major part of scientific computing. The development of computers signalled a new era in the approach to the solution of scientific problems. Many of the numerical methods initially developed for the purpose of hand calculation had to be revised; new techniques for solving scientific problems using electronic computers were intensively developed. Programming languages, operating systems, management of large quantities of data, correctness of numerical codes and many other considerations relevant to the efficient and accurate solution of the problems using a large computer system became subjects of the new discipline of computer science, on which scientific computing now depends heavily.