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There is limited understanding of the cognitive profiles of Spanish-speaking children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). The current study investigated the cognitive cluster profiles of Puerto Rican Spanish-speaking children with ADHD using the Wechsler Intelligence Scales for Children-Fourth Edition Spanish (WISC-IV Spanish) Index scores and examined the association between cognitive cluster profiles with other potentially relevant factors.
Hierarchical cluster analysis was used to identify WISC-IV clusters in a sample of 165 Puerto Rican children who had a primary diagnosis of ADHD. To examine the validity of the ADHD clusters, analysis of variances and chi-square analyses were conducted to compare the clusters across sociodemographics (e.g., age and education), type of ADHD diagnosis (ADHD subtype, Learning Disorder comorbidity), and academic achievement.
Clusters were differentiated by level and pattern of performance. A five-cluster solution was identified as optimal that included (C1) multiple cognitive deficits, (C2) processing speed deficits, (C3) generally average performance, (C4) perceptual reasoning strengths, and (C5) working memory deficits. Among the five clusters, the profile with multiple cognitive deficits was characterized by poorer performance on the four WISC-IV Spanish Indexes and was associated with adverse sociodemographic characteristics.
Results illustrate that there is substantial heterogeneity in cognitive abilities of Puerto Rican Spanish-speaking children with ADHD, and this heterogeneity is associated with a number of relevant outcomes.
As the older U.S. population becomes more ethnically diverse, there will be an increased need for culturally sensitive hospice care services. Hispanics often experience multiple barriers to quality end-of-life care services.
To address the underlying disparities in the cultural, emotional, and spiritual aspects of hospice care, the objective of the present qualitative study was to examine the emotional and spiritual needs of Hispanic patients' families while in hospice.
Semistructured in-person interviews were conducted with 29 Hispanic patients' families regarding their perceived experience of the hospice-based emotional and spiritual support received. Demographic information was collected on both the family member and the patient. Interviews were digitally recorded, transcribed, and analyzed using thematic content analysis.
Participant narratives fell into five main themes: (1) the influence of Hispanic culture in the relationship with hospice care providers; (2) types of social support received from hospice; (3) barriers to receiving support; (4) lack of health literacy regarding hospice care; and (5) cultural preferences for religious/spiritual support in hospice.
Significance of Results:
Our results provide insight into the specific emotional and spiritual needs of Hispanic families receiving hospice services. Our findings highlight that cultural values play an important role in the hospice care experiences of Hispanic families.
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