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Ventilator-capable skilled nursing facilities (vSNFs) are critical to the epidemiology and control of antibiotic-resistant organisms. During an infection prevention intervention to control carbapenem-resistant Enterobacterales (CRE), we conducted a qualitative study to characterize vSNF healthcare personnel beliefs and experiences regarding infection control measures.
A qualitative study involving semistructured interviews.
One vSNF in the Chicago, Illinois, metropolitan region.
The study included 17 healthcare personnel representing management, nursing, and nursing assistants.
We used face-to-face, semistructured interviews to measure healthcare personnel experiences with infection control measures at the midpoint of a 2-year quality improvement project.
Healthcare personnel characterized their facility as a home-like environment, yet they recognized that it is a setting where germs were ‘invisible’ and potentially ‘threatening.’ Healthcare personnel described elaborate self-protection measures to avoid acquisition or transfer of germs to their own household. Healthcare personnel were motivated to implement infection control measures to protect residents, but many identified structural barriers such as understaffing and time constraints, and some reported persistent preference for soap and water.
Healthcare personnel in vSNFs, from management to frontline staff, understood germ theory and the significance of multidrug-resistant organism transmission. However, their ability to implement infection control measures was hampered by resource limitations and mixed beliefs regarding the effectiveness of infection control measures. Self-protection from acquiring multidrug-resistant organisms was a strong motivator for healthcare personnel both outside and inside the workplace, and it could explain variation in adherence to infection control measures such as a higher hand hygiene adherence after resident care than before resident care.
Background: During a 2017–2019 intervention in Chicago-area vSNFs to control carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae, healthcare worker adherence to hand hygiene and personal protective equipment was stubbornly inadequate (hand hygiene adherence, ~16% and 56% on entry and exit), despite educational and monitoring efforts. Little is known about vSNF staff understanding of multidrug-resistant organism (MDRO) transmission. We conducted a qualitative analysis of staff members at a vSNF that included assessment of staff perceptions of personal MDRO acquisition risk and associated personal hygiene routines transitioning from work to home. Methods: Between September 2018 and November 2018, a PhD-candidate medical anthropologist conducted semistructured interviews with management (N = 5), nursing staff (N = 6), and certified nursing assistants (N = 6) at a vSNF in the Chicago region (Illinois) who had already received 1 year of MDRO staff education and hand hygiene adherence monitoring. More than 11 hours of semistructured interviews were collected and transcribed. Data collection and analysis included identifying how staff members related to their own risk of MDRO acquisition/infection and what personal hygiene routines they followed. Transcriptions of the data were analyzed using thematic coding aided by MAXQDA qualitative analysis software. Results: Staff members at all levels were able to describe their perceptions related to the risk of acquiring an MDRO and personal hygiene in great detail. The risk of acquiring an MDRO was perceived as a constant threat by staff members, who described germs as bad and everywhere (Table 1). The perceived threat of MDRO acquisition was connected to individual personal hygiene routines (eg, changing shoes before leaving work), which were considered important by staff members (Table 2). Nursing staff and certified nursing assistants noted that personal hygiene was a critical factor keeping their residents, themselves, and their families free from MDROs. Conclusions: In the context of a quality improvement campaign, vSNF healthcare workers are aware of the transmissibility of microscopic MDROs and are highly motivated in preventing transmission of MDROs to themselves. Such perceptions may explain actions such as why workers may be differentially adherent with infection control interventions (eg, more likely to perform hand hygiene leaving a room rather than going into a room, or less likely to change gowns in between residents in multibed rooms if they believe they are already personally protected with a gown). Our findings suggest that interventions to improve staff adherence to infection control measures may need to address other factors related to adherence besides knowledge deficit (eg, understaffing) and may need to acknowledge self-protection as a driving motivator for staff adherence.
Background: Carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) are endemic in the Chicago region. We assessed the regional impact of a CRE control intervention targeting high-prevalence facilities; that is, long-term acute-care hospitals (LTACHs) and ventilator-capable skilled nursing facilities (vSNFs). Methods: In July 2017, an academic–public health partnership launched a regional CRE prevention bundle: (1) identifying patient CRE status by querying Illinois’ XDRO registry and periodic point-prevalence surveys reported to public health, (2) cohorting or private rooms with contact precautions for CRE patients, (3) combining hand hygiene adherence, monitoring with general infection control education, and guidance by project coordinators and public health, and (4) daily chlorhexidine gluconate (CHG) bathing. Informed by epidemiology and modeling, we targeted LTACHs and vSNFs in a 13-mile radius from the coordinating center. Illinois mandates CRE reporting to the XDRO registry, which can also be manually queried or generate automated alerts to facilitate interfacility communication. The regional intervention promoted increased automation of alerts to hospitals. The prespecified primary outcome was incident clinical CRE culture reported to the XDRO registry in Cook County by month, analyzed by segmented regression modeling. A secondary outcome was colonization prevalence measured by serial point-prevalence surveys for carbapenemase-producing organism colonization in LTACHs and vSNFs. Results: All eligible LTACHs (n = 6) and vSNFs (n = 9) participated in the intervention. One vSNF declined CHG bathing. vSNFs that implemented CHG bathing typically bathed residents 2–3 times per week instead of daily. Overall, there were significant gaps in infection control practices, especially in vSNFs. Also, 75 Illinois hospitals adopted automated alerts (56 during the intervention period). Mean CRE incidence in Cook County decreased from 59.0 cases per month during baseline to 40.6 cases per month during intervention (P < .001). In a segmented regression model, there was an average reduction of 10.56 cases per month during the 24-month intervention period (P = .02) (Fig. 1), and an estimated 253 incident CRE cases were averted. Mean CRE incidence also decreased among the stratum of vSNF/LTACH intervention facilities (P = .03). However, evidence of ongoing CRE transmission, particularly in vSNFs, persisted, and CRE colonization prevalence remained high at intervention facilities (Table 1). Conclusions: A resource-intensive public health regional CRE intervention was implemented that included enhanced interfacility communication and targeted infection prevention. There was a significant decline in incident CRE clinical cases in Cook County, despite high persistent CRE colonization prevalence in intervention facilities. vSNFs, where understaffing or underresourcing were common and lengths of stay range from months to years, had a major prevalence challenge, underscoring the need for aggressive infection control improvements in these facilities.
Funding: The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (SHEPheRD Contract No. 200-2011-42037)
Disclosures: M.Y.L. has received research support in the form of contributed product from OpGen and Sage Products (now part of Stryker Corporation), and has received an investigator-initiated grant from CareFusion Foundation (now part of BD).
Background: During 2017–2019 in the Chicago region, several ventilator-capable skilled nursing facilities (vSNFs) participated in a quality improvement project to control the spread of highly prevalent carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE). With guidance from regional project coordinators and public health departments that involved education, assistance with implementation, and adherence monitoring, the facilities implemented a CRE prevention bundle that included a hand hygiene campaign that promoted alcohol-based hand rub, contact precautions (personal protective equipment with glove/gown) for care of CRE-colonized residents, and 2% chlorhexidine gluconate (CHG) wipes for routine resident bathing. We conducted a qualitative study to better understand the ways that vSNF employees engage with the implementation of such infection control measures. Methods: A PhD-candidate medical anthropologist conducted semistructured interviews with management (N = 5), nursing staff (N = 6), and certified nursing assistants (N = 6) at a vSNF in the Chicago region (Illinois) between September 2018 and November 2018. More than 11 hours of semistructured interviews were collected and transcribed. Data collection and analysis focused on identifying healthcare worker experiences during an infection control intervention. Transcriptions of the data were analyzed using thematic coding aided by MAXQDA qualitative analysis software. Results: Healthcare workers described the facility using language associated with a family environment (Table 1). Furthermore, healthcare workers demonstrated motivation to implement infection control policies (Table 2). However, healthcare workers expressed cultural and structural challenges encountered during implementation, such as their belief that some infection control measures discouraged maintenance of a home-like environment, lack of time, and understaffing. Some healthcare workers perceived that alcohol-based hand rub was ineffective over time and left unpleasant textures on the skin. Additionally, some workers did not trust the available gown and gloves used to prevent transmission. Lastly, healthcare workers typically did not prefer 2% CHG wipes over soap and water, citing residual resident postbathing smell as one indicator of CHG ineffectiveness. Conclusions: In a vSNF we found both considerable support and challenges implementing a CRE prevention bundle from the healthcare worker perspective. Healthcare workers were dedicated to recreating a home-like environment for their residents, which sometimes felt at odds with infection control interventions. Residual misconceptions (eg, alcohol-based hand rub is not effective) and negative worker perceptions (eg, permeability of contact precaution gowns and/or residue from alcohol-based hand rub) suggest that ongoing education and participation by healthcare workers in evaluating infection control products for interventions is critical.
Background: Healthcare services are increasingly shifting from inpatient to outpatient settings. Outpatient settings such as emergency departments (EDs), oncology clinics, dialysis clinics, and day surgery often involve invasive procedures with the risk of acquiring healthcare-associated infections (HAIs). As a leading cause of HAI, Clostridioides difficile infection (CDI) in outpatient settings has not been sufficiently described in Canada. The Canadian Nosocomial Infection Surveillance Program (CNISP) aims to describe the epidemiology, molecular characterization, and antimicrobial susceptibility of outpatient CDI across Canada. Methods: Epidemiologic data were collected from patients diagnosed with CDI from a network of 47 adult and pediatric CNISP hospitals. Patients presenting to an outpatient setting such as the ED or outpatient clinics were considered as outpatient CDI. Cases were considered HAIs if the patient had had a healthcare intervention within the previous 4 weeks, and they were considered community-associated if there was no history of hospitalization within the previous 12 weeks. Clostridioides difficile isolates were submitted to the National Microbiology Laboratory for testing during an annual 2-month targeted surveillance period. National and regional rates of CDI were stratified by outpatient location. Results: Between January 1, 2015, and June 30, 2019, 2,691 cases of outpatient-CDI were reported, and 348 isolates were available for testing. Most cases (1,475 of 2,691, 54.8%) were identified in outpatient clinics, and 72.8% (1,960 of 2,691) were classified as community associated. CDI cases per 100,000 ED visits were highest in 2015, at 10.3, and decreased to 8.1 in 2018. Rates from outpatient clinics decreased from 3.5 in 2016 to 2.7 in 2018 (Fig. 1). Regionally, CDI rates in the ED declined in Central Canada and increased in the West after 2016. Rates in outpatient clinics were >2 times higher in the West compared to other regions. RT027 associated with NAP1 was most common among ED patients (26 of 195, 13.3%), whereas RT106 associated with NAP11 was predominant in outpatient clinics (22 of 189, 11.6%). Overall, 10.4% of isolates were resistant to moxifloxacin, 0.5% were resistant to rifampin, and 24.2% were resistant to clindamycin. No resistance was observed for metronidazole, vancomycin, or tigecycline. Compared to CNISP inpatient CDI data, outpatients with CDI were younger (51.8 ± 23.3 vs 64.2 ± 21.6; P < .001), included more females (56.4% vs 50.9%; P < .001), and were more often treated with metronidazole (63.0% vs 56.1%; P < .001). Conclusions: For the first time, CDI cases identified in outpatient settings were characterized in a Canadian context. Outpatient CDI rates are decreasing overall, but they vary by region. Predominant ribotypes vary based on outpatient location. Outpatients with CDI are younger and are more likely female than inpatients with CDI.
Disclosures: Susy Hota reports contract research for Finch Therapeutics.
Investigations of technology and crafts have resulted in well-understood technological trajectories, particularly for the development of prehistoric metalworking (Tylecote 1987; Craddock 1995; Ottaway 1994). The frequent emphasis on metalworking, however, has often been to the detriment of other crafts. The bringing together of different materials specialists, and the comparative approach taken by the Emergence of European Communities Project, allow us to explore contrasting, regionally distinct attitudes to a range of crafts at specific historical moments. Although craftspeople's technical decisions are affected by differential access to resources, their choices are not solely confined to the environment, raw materials, and tools; decisions are also socially and culturally defined (Lemonnier 1992; van der Leeuw 1993; Dobres 2000) and the investigation of such choices informs on regional social relations.
The most significant craft activities at our sites provided the material culture to support daily life: ceramic production, the manufacture of chipped and ground stone objects, and the construction of houses – the latter involving woodworking, stonemasonry, and clay manipulation. In addition, Százhalombatta had a substantial corpus of worked bone. Detailed excavation, recording, and use of modern scientific techniques, including petrology, micromorphology, archaeobotany, and use–wear analysis, along with experimental archaeology, illuminate these crafts. Interestingly, despite the frequent emphasis on metal technology in Bronze Age social models, at Thy and Monte Polizzo, our work has revealed little direct evidence for metalworking. At Százhalombatta, fragments of bronze, moulds, and slag attest to metalworking from the Early Bronze Age (Horváth et al 2000; Poroszlai 2000; Sørensen and Vicze in press), but are relatively few. With little substantial to add to knowledge about metal technology, we do not consider it here.
Some low-acuity emergency department (ED) presentations are considered convenience visits and potentially avoidable with improved access to primary care services. This study assessed the frequency and determinants of patients' efforts to access alternative care before ED presentation.
Patients aged 17 years and older were randomly selected from 2 urban ED sites in Edmonton. Survey data were collected on use and characteristics of alternative care before the ED visit. Information was also collected on patient demographics and factors influencing their perception of whether the ED was the best care option.
Of the 1389 patients approached, 905 (65%) completed the survey and data from 894 participants were analyzed. Sixty-one percent reported that they sought alternative care before visiting the ED. Eighty-nine of the patients who attempted alternative access before the ED visit felt that the ED was their best care option. Results of the multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that injury presentation, living arrangements, smoking status and whether or not patients had a family practitioner were predictors for seeking alternative care before visiting the ED.
Most ambulatory patients attempt to look for other sources of care before presenting to the ED. Despite this attempted access to alternative care, while patients wait for ED care, they perceive that the ED is their best care option at that point in time.
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