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The aim of this study was to examine the gender differential effects of eating habits and physical activity on overweight and obesity among school-aged adolescents in Bangladesh. Nationally representative data extracted from the 2014 Global School-based Student Health Survey (GSHS) were utilized. The survey collected information related to physical and mental health from 2989 school-aged adolescents in Bangladesh. An exploratory data analysis and multivariate logistic regression model were employed in this study. Female adolescents were at a lower risk of being overweight or obese (AOR=0.573) than males, with a prevalence of 7.4% (males: 9.9%). The results showed that high consumption of vegetables (both: AOR=0.454; males: AOR=0.504; females: AOR=0.432), high soft drink consumption (both: AOR=2.357; males: AOR=2.929; females: AOR=1.677), high fast food consumption (both: AOR=2.777; males: AOR=6.064; females: AOR=1.695), sleep disturbance (both: AOR=0.675; males: AOR=0.590; females: AOR=0.555) and regular walking or cycling to school (both: AOR=0.472; males: AOR=0.430; females: AOR=0.557) were vital influencing factors for being overweight or obese among adolescents for both sexes. Sedentary activities during leisure time were also identified as significant predictors of being overweight or obese for males. Regular fruit and vegetable consumption, the avoidance of soft drinks and fast food, an increase in vigorous physical activity, regular attendance at physical education classes and fewer sedentary leisure time activities could all help reduce the risk of being overweight or obese for both sexes.
Nanohybrids containing graphene and bismuth ferrite have been actively employed as efficient photo-catalysts these days owing to the low rate of charge carrier's (e−–h+) recombination, moderate surface area with a suitable range of band-gaps. We have synthesized nanohybrids of graphene oxide (GO) and doped BiFeO3 using a co-precipitation method and the doping elements were lanthanum and manganese, hence called BLFMO/GO nanohybrids. The surface area of BLFMO [La = 15% increased from 6.8 m2/g (for pure) to 62.68 m2/g (in nanohybrid)]. Also, the bandgap of the BLFMO/GO nanohybrid reduced significantly up to 1.75 eV. The resulting BLFMO/GO nanohybrid represents significantly higher catalytic activity (96% in 30 min) than the pure BiFeO3 (30% in 30 min).
Rutile nanoparticles have been synthesized by acid hydrolysis of titanium isopropoxide by low-temperature dissolution-reprecipitation process. High-resolution transmission electron micrographs of the rutile colloidal solution show needle-shaped rutile nanoparticles with the dimensions of 10–30 nm in diameter and 100–150 nm in length. X-ray diffraction (XRD) data show the existence of only the rutile polymorph in TiO2 powder with a crystallite size of 11.3 nm. The dielectric constant of rutile nanoparticles has been found to be 57 at 10 MHz AC frequency and DC conductance as 2.3 × 10−6 S/cm. Transmission electron micrographs and XRD data analysis imply that the rutile crystallites are self-organized in a regular fashion to produce multilayer three-dimensional linear clusters. The clusters have been found to be microporous (average porosity 1.4 nm) with high specific surface area (132.2 m2/g). At higher concentration, the clusters aggregate to produce interconnected network of star- or flower-like structures. This organized crystalline microporous metal-oxide semiconductor might find various practical applications.
Electromyography (EMG) for suspected cervical or lumbosacral root compression is often negative, producing expense and physical discomfort that could have been avoided. To improve patient selection for testing, we sought to identify clinical features that would accurately predict presence of radiculopathy on EMG.
Adult patients consecutively evaluated for suspected cervical or lumbosacral root compression at an academic clinical neurophysiology laboratory were prospectively enrolled. Presence of clinical features suggesting root disease (neck or back pain, dermatomal pain or numbness, myotomal weakness, segmental reflex loss, and straight leg-raising) was recorded prior to testing. EMG examination to confirm root compression was conducted per standard protocols. Analysis was based on computation of sensitivity, specificity, predictive values, and accuracy.
A total of 200 patients (55% male; mean age 46.4 years; 38% suspected of cervical and 62% of lumbosacral disease) were included. EMG evidence of root disease was detected in 31% of cervical and 62% of lumbosacral referrals. Dermatomal pain was the most sensitive, and segmental reflex loss and myotomal weakness the most specific individual predictors of root disease. Combined presence of dermatomal pain or numbness with segmental reflex loss and myotomal weakness approached specificities of 78% (lumbosacral disease) and 99% (cervical disease). In all cases, myotomal weakness was the most accurate predictor of root disease.
The diverse symptoms and signs of cervical and lumbosacral root compression predict a positive electrodiagnosis of radiculopathy with varying degrees of accuracy, and may be used to guide patient selection for EMG testing.
A 51-year-old man presented with a 5-day history of progressive facial swelling, sensation of head fullness, increasing shortness of breath and paroxysmal nocturnal dyspnea. He denied chest pain, syncope or presyncope. Pastmedical history included mechanical aortic valve replacement 7 years prior and atrial fibrillation treated with warfarin. A clinical diagnosis of acute superior vena cava (SVC) syndrome was made. Portable chest radiograph showed a widened superior mediastinum. Computed tomography scan of the thorax demonstrated a large type A aortic dissection almost completely effacing the SVC. Acute type A aortic dissection (AD) is an emergency requiring prompt diagnosis and treatment. Patients typically present with acute onset of chest and/or back pain, classically described as “ripping” or “tearing.” SVC syndrome is rarely, if ever, mentioned as a presentation, as it is usually due to more chronic conditions. This case illustrates a rare incidence of type A AD actually presenting as SVC syndrome.
Carbon-based coatings exhibit many attractive properties that make them good candidates for a wide range of engineering applications. Tribological studies of the films have revealed a close correlation between the chemistry of the hydrocarbon source gases and the coefficients of friction and wear rates of the diamond-like carbon films. Those films grown in source gases with higher hydrogen-to-carbon ratios had much lower coefficients of friction and wear rates than did films derived from source gases with lower hydrogen-to-carbon ratios. The mechanism for this low friction is as yet not properly understood. Ongoing structural characterization of the films at Argonne National Laboratory is gradually revealing this mechanism. Recent studies have included x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), near edge x-ray absorption fine structure (NEXAFS) and x-ray reflectivity (XRR). XPS showed ∼10% oxygen at the surface, which was largely removed after a 1 minute sputter; NEXAFS showed a high sp2:sp3 ratio implying a highly graphitic material; and XRR has given a comprehensive depth profile, with three layers of increasing density as the substrate was approached. The paper discusses the results and correlation with previous friction measurements.
The objective of the study was to determine the prevalence of smear-positive tuberculosis (TB) in a rural area in Bangladesh at Matlab. A TB surveillance system was established among 106000 people in rural Bangladesh at Matlab. Trained field workers interviewed all persons aged [ges ]15 years to detect suspected cases of TB (cough>21 days) and sputum specimens of suspected cases were examined for acid-fast bacilli (AFB). Of 59395 persons interviewed, 4235 (7·1%) had a cough for >21 days. Sputum specimens were examined for AFB from 3834 persons, 52 (1·4%) of them were positive for AFB. The prevalence of chronic cough and sputum positivity were significantly higher among males compared to females (P<0·001). The population-based prevalence rate of smear-positive TB cases was 95/100000 among persons aged [ges ]15 years. Cases of TB clustered geographically (relative risk 5·53, 95% CI 3·19–9·59). The high burden of TB among rural population warrants appropriate measures to control TB in Bangladesh. The higher prevalence of persistent cough and AFB-positive sputum among males need further exploration. Factors responsible for higher prevalence of TB in clusters should be investigated.
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