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No recent original studies on the pattern of diet are available for Saudi Arabia at the national level. The present study was performed to describe the consumption of foods and beverages by Saudi adults.
The Saudi Health Interview Survey (SHIS) was conducted in 2013. Data were collected through interviews and anthropometric measurements were done. A diet history questionnaire was used to determine the amount of consumption for eighteen food or beverage items in a typical week.
The study was a household survey in all thirteen administrative regions of Saudi Arabia.
Participants were 10 735 individuals aged 15 years or older.
Mean daily consumption was 70·9 (se 1·3) g for fruits, 111·1 (se 2·0) g for vegetables, 11·6 (se 0·3) g for dark fish, 13·8 (se 0·3) g for other fish, 44·2 (se 0·7) g for red meat, 4·8 (se 0·2) g for processed meat, 10·9 (se 0·3) g for nuts, 219·4 (se 5·1) ml for milk and 115·5 (se 2·6) ml for sugar-sweetened beverages. Dietary guideline recommendations were met by only 5·2 % of individuals for fruits, 7·5 % for vegetables, 31·4 % for nuts and 44·7 % for fish. The consumption of processed foods and sugar-sweetened beverages was high in young adults.
Only a small percentage of the Saudi population met the dietary recommendations. Programmes to improve dietary behaviours are urgently needed to reduce the current and future burden of disease. The promotion of healthy diets should target both the general population and specific high-risk groups. Regular assessments of dietary status are needed to monitor trends and inform interventions.
To examine the prevalence and likelihood of taking folic acid or vitamin supplements among adults with CHD or stroke v. adults without these conditions.
A cross-sectional Behavioural Risk Factor Surveillance System survey was conducted in twelve states of the United States and Puerto Rico in 2006. Self-reported data from participants were collected.
The United States.
US non-institutionalised adults (n 41 792), aged ≥45 years.
Of all participants, 5445 had CHD and 2076 had stroke. Significantly higher percentages of women than men reported taking folic acid or vitamin supplements. After adjustment for potential confounders, women with CHD had a significantly lower adjusted prevalence (AP) and adjusted OR (AOR) than women without CHD for taking folic acid less than one time per d (AP = 3·9 % v. 5·5 %; AOR = 0·56; 95 % CI 0·39, 0·81), for taking folic acid one to four times per d (AP = 50·0 % v. 57·5 %; AOR = 0·68; 95 % CI 0·60, 0·79), and for taking vitamin supplements (AP = 60·9 % v. 69·9 %; AOR = 0·66; 95 % CI 0·57, 0·76). Men with CHD had a significantly higher AP (50·4 % v. 46·2 %) and AOR (1·17; 95 % CI 1·02, 1·33) of taking folic acid one to four times per d than men without CHD. In both sexes, adults with stroke were as likely as those without to take these supplements.
Substantial variations in the prevalence and likelihood of taking folic acid or vitamin supplements exist by gender and by CHD status, but not by stroke status.
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