A model = (M. E, …) of Zermelo-Fraenkel set theory ZF is said to be 0-like. where E interprets ∈ and θ is an uncountable cardinal, if ∣M∣ = θ but ∣{b ∈ M: bEa}∣ < 0 for each a ∈ M, An immediate corollary of the classical theorem of Keisler and Morley on elementary end extensions of models of set theory is that every consistent extension of ZF has an ℵ1-like model. Coupled with Chang's two cardinal theorem this implies that if θ is a regular cardinal 0 such that 2<0 = 0 then every consistent extension of ZF also has a 0+-like model. In particular, in the presence of the continuum hypothesis every consistent extension of ZF has an ℵ2-like model. Here we prove:
Theorem A. If 0 has the tree property then the following are equivalent for any completion T of ZFC:
(i) T has a 0-like model.
(ii) Ф ⊆ T. where Ф is the recursive set of axioms {∃κ (κ is n-Mahlo and “Vκis a Σn-elementary submodel of the universe”): n ∈ ω}.
(iii) T has a λ-like model for every uncountable cardinal λ.
Theorem B. The following are equiconsistent over ZFC:
(i) “There exists an ω-Mahlo cardinal”.
(ii) “For every finite language , all ℵ2-like models of ZFC() satisfy the schemeФ().