To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure email@example.com
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
G protein-coupled receptor 55 (GPR55) is an orphan G protein-coupled receptor with various physiological functions. Recent evidence suggests that this receptor may be involved in the control of motor functions. Therefore, in the present study, we evaluated the effects of intra-striatal administration of GPR55 selective ligands in a rat model of Parkinson’s disease.
Experimental Parkinson was induced by unilateral intra-striatal administration of 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA, 10 µg/rat). L-α-lysophosphatidylinositol (LPI, 1 and 5 µg/rat), an endogenous GPR55 agonist, and ML193 (1 and 5 µg/rat), a selective GPR55 antagonist, were injected into the striatum of 6-OHDA-lesioned rats. Motor performance and balance skills were evaluated using the accelerating rotating rod and the ledged beam tests. The sensorimotor function of the forelimbs and locomotor activity were assessed by the adhesive removal and open field tests, respectively.
6-OHDA-lesioned rats had impaired behaviours in all tests. Intra-striatal administration of LPI in 6-OHDA-lesioned rats increased time on the rotarod, decreased latency to remove the label, with no significant effect on slip steps, and locomotor activity. Intra-striatal administration of ML193 also increased time on the rotarod, decreased latency to remove the label and slip steps in 6-OHDA-lesioned rats mostly at the dose of 1 µg/rat.
This study suggests that the striatal GPR55 is involved in the control of motor functions. However, considering the similar effects of GPR55 agonist and antagonist, it may be concluded that this receptor has a modulatory role in the control of motor deficits in an experimental model of Parkinson.
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) includes a range of disorders from simple steatosis to non-alcoholic steatohepatitis. There is no proven drug treatment for NAFLD, and diet modification is considered part of the main line of treatment for this disease. The aim of this study was to investigate the efficacy of garlic supplementation in NAFLD patients. The effect of garlic powder supplementation on hepatic steatosis, liver enzymes and lipid profile was investigated in NAFLD patients. Ninety NAFLD patients were randomly assigned to take either a garlic powder supplement or a placebo for 12 weeks. The treatment group received four tablets of garlic daily (each tablet contained 400 mg garlic powder). The control group received four tablets of placebo (each placebo contained 400 mg starch). At the end of the study, hepatic steatosis was significantly reduced in the treatment group compared with the control group (P = 0·001). In addition, a significant decrease was seen in the serum concentration of alanine transaminase (P < 0·001), aspartate transaminase (P = 0·002), γ-glutamyltransferase (P = 0·003) as well as total cholesterol (P = 0·009), TAG (P < 0·001), HDL-cholesterol (P < 0·001) and LDL-cholesterol (P = 0·01) in the treatment group compared with the control group. No significant difference was seen between the two groups in serum concentration of alkaline phosphatase. Overall, garlic powder supplementation improved hepatic features and lipid profile among NAFLD patients.
This chapter reviews the most researched psychotherapeutic interventions for individuals with cognitive impairment (CI) and common symptoms targeted by these interventions. Elements of assessment and psychotherapy modifications to consider when working with individuals with dementia are also discussed. Assessment components might include clarification of medical symptom overlap, collateral information, assessment instruments developed for individuals with cognitive difficulties, and incorporating consultation with other specialties. In general, clinicians should consider using simplified skills, increasing the number and frequency of sessions, shortening sessions, reducing group size, and providing more guidance during skill instruction and practice when working with individuals with cognitive impairments. Despite their promise and recommendations for their use, nonpharmacological therapies for individuals with dementia have a small research base and warrant continued development and evaluation.
As technology becomes more powerful, intelligent, and autonomous, its usage also creates unintended consequences and ethical challenges for a vast array of stakeholders. The ethical implications of technology on society, for example, range from job losses (such as potential loss of truck driver jobs due to automation) to lying and deception about a product that may occur within a technology firm or on user-generated content platforms. The challenges around ethical technology design are so multifaceted that there is an essential need for each stakeholder to accept responsibility. Even policymakers who are charged with providing the appropriate regulatory framework and legislation about technologies have an obligation to learn about the pros and cons of proposed options.
Some of the significant features of our era include the design of large-scale systems; advances in medicine, manufacturing, and artificial intelligence (AI); the role of social media in influencing behavior and toppling governments; and the surge of online transactions that are replacing human face-to-face interactions. Most of these features have resulted from advances in technology. While spanning a variety of disciplines, these features also have two important aspects in common: the necessity for sound decision-making about the technology that is evolving, and the need to understand the ethical implications of these decisions to all stakeholders.
This chapter presents an interview with Vint Cerf, one of the fathers of the Internet. The chapter discusses his personal views on ethics, data and privacy, net neutrality, public policy, self-driving cars, genetic codes, and reflections on the future.
Many of the significant developments of our era have resulted from advances in technology, including the design of large-scale systems; advances in medicine, manufacturing, and artificial intelligence; the role of social media in influencing behaviour and toppling governments; and the surge of online transactions that are replacing human face-to-face interactions. These advances have given rise to new kinds of ethical concerns around the uses (and misuses) of technology. This collection of essays by prominent academics and technology leaders covers important ethical questions arising in modern industry, offering guidance on how to approach these dilemmas. Chapters discuss what we can learn from the ethical lapses of #MeToo, Volkswagen, and Cambridge Analytica, and highlight the common need across all applications for sound decision-making and understanding the implications for stakeholders. Technologists and general readers with no formal ethics training and specialists exploring technological applications to the field of ethics will benefit from this overview.