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To examine the cross-sectional and longitudinal (2-year follow-up) associations between dietary diversity (DD) and depressive symptoms.
An energy-adjusted dietary diversity score (DDS) was assessed using a validated FFQ and was categorised into quartiles (Q). The variety in each food group was classified into four categories of diversity (C). Depressive symptoms were assessed with Beck Depression Inventory-II (Beck II) questionnaire and depression cases defined as physician-diagnosed or Beck II >= 18. Linear and logistic regression models were used.
Spanish older adults with metabolic syndrome (MetS).
A total of 6625 adults aged 55–75 years from the PREDIMED-Plus study with overweight or obesity and MetS.
Total DDS was inversely and statistically significantly associated with depression in the cross-sectional analysis conducted; OR Q4 v. Q1 = 0·76 (95 % CI (0·64, 0·90)). This was driven by high diversity compared to low diversity (C3 v. C1) of vegetables (OR = 0·75, 95 % CI (0·57, 0·93)), cereals (OR = 0·72 (95 % CI (0·56, 0·94)) and proteins (OR = 0·27, 95 % CI (0·11, 0·62)). In the longitudinal analysis, there was no significant association between the baseline DDS and changes in depressive symptoms after 2 years of follow-up, except for DD in vegetables C4 v. C1 = (β = 0·70, 95 % CI (0·05, 1·35)).
According to our results, DD is inversely associated with depressive symptoms, but eating more diverse does not seem to reduce the risk of future depression. Additional longitudinal studies (with longer follow-up) are needed to confirm these findings.
The aim of the study was to investigate the association between pre-gestational carbohydrate quality index (CQI) and the incidence of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). Data from the ‘Seguimiento Universidad de Navarra’ (SUN) cohort were used, which includes 3827 women who notified at least one pregnancy between December 1999 and December 2019. We used a validated semi-quantitative 136-item FFQ to evaluate dietary exposures at baseline and at 10-year follow-up. The CQI was defined by four criteria: glycaemic index, whole-grain/total-grain carbohydrate, dietary fibre intake and solid/total carbohydrate ratio. We fitted generalised estimating equations with repeated measurements of the CQI to assess its relationship with incident GDM. A total of 6869 pregnancies and 202 new cases of incident GDM were identified. The inverse association between the global quality of carbohydrate and the development of GDM was not statistically significant: OR the highest v. the lowest CQI category: 0·67, 95 % CI (0·40, 1·10), Pfor trend = 0·10. Participants at the highest CQI category and with daily carbohydrate amounts ≥50 % of total energy intake had the lowest incidence of GDM (OR = 0·29 (95 % CI (0·09, 0·89)) compared with those with the lowest quality (lowest CQI) and quantity (≤40 %). Further studies are needed to overcome the limitations of our study. Those studies should jointly consider the quality and the quantity of dietary carbohydrates, as the quality might be of importance, especially in women with a higher intake of carbohydrates.
The burden of depression is increasing worldwide, specifically in older adults. Unhealthy dietary patterns may partly explain this phenomenon. In the Spanish PREDIMED-Plus study, we explored (1) the cross-sectional association between the adherence to the Prime Diet Quality Score (PDQS), an a priori-defined high-quality food pattern, and the prevalence of depressive symptoms at baseline (cross-sectional analysis) and (2) the prospective association of baseline PDQS with changes in depressive symptomatology after 2 years of follow-up. After exclusions, we assessed 6612 participants in the cross-sectional analysis and 5523 participants in the prospective analysis. An energy-adjusted high-quality dietary score (PDQS) was assessed using a validated FFQ. The cross-sectional association between PDQS and the prevalence of depression or presence of depressive symptoms and the prospective changes in depressive symptoms were evaluated through multivariable regression models (logistic and linear models and mixed linear-effects models). PDQS was inversely associated with depressive status in the cross-sectional analysis. Participants in the highest quintile of PDQS (Q5) showed a significantly reduced odds of depression prevalence as compared to participants in the lowest quartile of PDQS (Q1) (OR (95 %) CI = 0·82 (0·68, 0·98))). The baseline prevalence of depression decreased across PDQS quintiles (Pfor trend = 0·015). A statistically significant association between PDQS and changes in depressive symptoms after 2-years follow-up was found (β (95 %) CI = −0·67 z-score (–1·17, −0·18). A higher PDQS was cross-sectionally related to a lower depressive status. Nevertheless, the null finding in our prospective analysis raises the possibility of reverse causality. Further prospective investigation is required to ascertain the association between PDQS and changes in depressive symptoms along time.
The aim of this study was to assess the association between alcohol intake and premature mortality (younger than 65 years) and to explore the effect of potential alcohol underreporting by heavy drinkers. We followed-up 20 272 university graduates. Four categories of alcohol intake were considered (abstainer, light, moderate and heavy consumption). Repeated measurements of alcohol intake and updated information on confounders were used in time-dependent Cox models. Potential underreporting of alcohol intake by some heavy drinkers (likely misclassified as light or moderate drinkers) was explicitly addressed in an attempt to correct potential underreporting by using indirect information. During 12·3 years of median follow-up (interquartile range: 6·8–15·0), 226 participants died before their 65th birthday. A higher risk of early mortality was found for the highest category of alcohol intake (≥50 g/d) in comparison with abstention (multivariable-adjusted hazard ratio (HR) = 2·82, 95 % CI 1·38, 5·79). In analyses of alcohol as a continuous variable, the multivariable-adjusted HR was 1·17 (95 % CI 1·08, 1·26), for each 10 g/d of alcohol. This harmful linear association was present both in uncorrected models and in models corrected for potential underreporting. No significant inverse association between light or moderate alcohol intake and premature mortality was observed, even after correcting for potential misclassification. Alcohol intake exhibited a harmful linear dose–response association with premature mortality (<65 years) in this young and highly educated Mediterranean cohort. Our attempts to correct for potential misclassification did not substantially change these results.
The aim of this study was to assess body shape trajectories in childhood and midlife in relation to subsequent risk of breast cancer (BC) in a Mediterranean cohort.
The ‘Seguimiento Universidad de Navarra’ (SUN) Project is a dynamic prospective cohort study of university graduates initiated in 1999. With a group-based modelling approach, we assessed body shape trajectories from age 5 to 40 years. Multivariable Cox regression models were used to estimate the hazard ratio (HR) for BC after the age of 40 years according to the body shape trajectory.
City of Pamplona, in the North of Spain.
6498 women with a mean age of 40 years (sd 9).
We identified four distinct body shape trajectories (‘childhood lean-midlife increase’ (19·9 %), ‘childhood medium-midlife stable’ (53 %), ‘childhood heavy-midlife stable’ (21 %) and ‘childhood heavy-midlife increase’ (6·1 %)). Among 54 978 women-years of follow-up, we confirmed eighty-two incident cases of BC. Women in the ‘childhood lean-midlife increase’ group showed a higher risk of BC (HR = 1·84, 95 % CI 1·11, 3·04) compared with women in the ‘childhood medium-midlife stable’ category. This association was stronger for postmenopausal BC (HR = 2·42, 95 % CI 1·07, 5·48).
Our results suggest a role for lifetime adiposity in breast carcinogenesis.
Our aim was to evaluate the relationship between adherence to different Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) diet indices and the risk of depression.
In a prospective study we assessed 14051 participants of a dynamic (permanently ongoing recruitment) prospective cohort (the Seguimiento Universidad de Navarra (SUN) Project), initially free of depression. At baseline, a validated FFQ was used to assess adherence to four previously proposed DASH indices (Dixon, Mellen, Fung and Günther). To define the outcome we applied two definitions of depression: a less conservative definition including only self-reported physician-diagnosed depression (410 incident cases) and a more conservative definition that required both clinical diagnosis of depression and use of antidepressants (113 incident cases). Cox regression and restricted cubic splines analyses were performed.
After a median follow-up period of 8 years, the multiple-adjusted model showed an inverse association with the Fung DASH score (hazard ratio (HR)=0·76; 95 % CI 0·61, 0·94) when we used the less conservative definition of depression, and also under the more conservative definition (HR=0·63; 95 % CI 0·41, 0·95). We observed a weak inverse association with the Mellen DASH score, but no statistically significant association was found for the other definitions. The restricted cubic splines analyses suggested that these associations were non-linear (U-shaped).
Moderate adherence to the DASH diet as operationalized by Fung and Mellen was related to lower depression risk. Since these associations were non-linear, additional prospective studies are required before the results can be generalized and clinical recommendations can be given.
Only one prospective study has analysed the relationship between the inflammatory properties of diet and risk of depression thus far. The aim of this study was to assess the association between the dietary inflammatory index (DII) and the incidence of depression. In a cohort study of 15 093 university graduates, participants completed a validated FFQ at baseline and after 10 years of follow-up. The DII was calculated based on the FFQ. Each of the twenty-eight nutrients or foods received a score based on findings from the peer-reviewed literature reporting on the relationships between diet and inflammatory biomarkers (IL-1β, IL-4, IL-6, IL-10, TNF-α and C-reactive protein). Participants were classified as having depression if they reported a new clinical diagnosis of depression by a physician, antidepressant drugs, or both. Multivariable Cox regression models were used to estimate hazard ratios (HR) of depression according to quintiles of the DII. After a median 8·5 years of follow-up, we observed 1051 incident cases of depression. The HR for participants in the highest quintile of DII (strongly pro-inflammatory) was 1·47 (95 % CI 1·17, 1·85) compared with those in the bottom quintile, with a significant dose–response relationship (Ptrend=0·01). In the subgroup analyses, the association between DII and depression was stronger among participants >55 years and among those with cardiometabolic comorbidities (HR 2·70; 95 % CI 1·22, 5·97 and HR 1·80; 95 % CI 1·27, 2·57, respectively). A pro-inflammatory diet was associated with a significantly higher risk of depression in a Mediterranean population. This association was stronger among older subjects and subjects with cardiometabolic diseases.
To evaluate the association of snacking between main meals with the risk of developing metabolic syndrome.
A dynamic prospective cohort study (the SUN Project; Seguimiento Universidad de Navarra). Snack consumption was evaluated using the question: ‘Do you have the habit of snacking between main meals?’ Metabolic syndrome was defined according to the updated harmonizing criteria. We estimated multivariable-adjusted relative risks (RR) of metabolic syndrome and their 95 % confidence intervals using Poisson regression models. An exploratory factor analysis was also used to identify patterns of snacking.
University of Navarra, Spain.
The study included 6851 university graduates, initially free of metabolic syndrome, and followed-up them for a median of 8·3 years.
Among our participants, 34·6 % reported usual snacking between main meals. The cumulative incidence of metabolic syndrome was 5·1 % (9·5 % among men and 2·8 % among women). Snacking between main meals was significantly associated with higher risk for developing metabolic syndrome after multivariable adjustment (RR=1·44; 95 %CI 1·18, 1·77). Higher adherence to an ‘unhealthy snacking pattern’ was also independently associated with increased incidence of metabolic syndrome (fourth quartile of adherence compared with non-snacking: RR=1·68; 95 % CI 1·23, 2·29; P for trend <0·001).
Our findings suggest that avoidance of snacking between main meals can be included among the preventive approaches to reduce the risk of metabolic syndrome development, especially when snacks contain foods of poor nutritional quality.
Previous studies on the association between alcohol intake and the development of the metabolic syndrome (MetS) have yielded inconsistent results. Besides, few studies have analysed the effects of red wine (RW) consumption on the prevalence of the MetS and its components. As moderate RW drinkers have a better lipid profile and lower incidence rates of diabetes, hypertension and abdominal obesity, all components of the MetS, it was hypothesised that moderate RW consumption could be associated with a lower prevalence of the MetS. In the present cross-sectional study of 5801 elderly participants at a high cardiovascular risk included in the PREDIMED (Prevención con Dieta Mediterránea) study, 3897 fulfilled the criteria of the MetS at baseline. RW intake was recorded using a validated 137-item FFQ. Multiple logistic regression analysis was carried out to estimate the association between RW intake and the prevalence of the MetS. Compared with non-drinkers, moderate RW drinkers ( ≥ 1 drink/d) were found to have a reduced risk of prevalent MetS (OR 0·56, 95 % CI 0·45, 0·68; P< 0·001), a lower risk of having an abnormal waist circumference (OR 0·59, 95 % CI 0·46, 0·77; P< 0·001), low HDL-cholesterol concentrations (OR 0·42, 95 % CI 0·32, 0·53; P< 0·001), high blood pressure (OR 0·28, 95 % CI 0·17, 0·45; P< 0·001) and high fasting plasma glucose concentrations (OR 0·67, 95 % CI 0·54, 0·82; P< 0·001) after adjusting for several confounders. This association was found to be stronger in female participants, in participants aged < 70 years and in participants who were former or current smokers. No significant association was found between RW intake ( ≥ 1 drink/d) and TAG concentrations. In conclusion, moderate RW consumption is associated with a lower prevalence of the MetS in an elderly Mediterranean population at a high cardiovascular risk.
Reported associations between the consumption of fried foods and the incidence of obesity or weight gain make it likely that fried food consumption might also be associated with the development of hypertension. However, evidence from long-term prospective studies is scarce. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to longitudinally evaluate this association in a prospective cohort. The SUN (Seguimiento Universidad de Navarra) project is a Mediterranean cohort study of university graduates conducted in Spain, which started in December 1999 and is still ongoing. In the present study, we included 13 679 participants (5059 men and 8620 women), free of hypertension at baseline with a mean age of 36·5 (sd 10·8) years. Total fried food consumption was estimated at baseline. The outcome was the incidence of a medical diagnosis of self-reported hypertension during the follow-up period. To assess the association between the consumption of fried foods and the subsequent risk of developing incident hypertension during the follow-up period, Cox regression models were used. During a median follow-up period of 6·3 years, 1232 incident cases of hypertension were identified. After adjusting for potential confounders, the adjusted hazard ratios for developing hypertension were 1·18 (95 % CI 1·03, 1·36) and 1·21 (95 % CI 1·04, 1·41) for those consuming fried foods 2–4 and >4 times/week, respectively, compared with those consuming fried foods < 2 times/week (P for trend = 0·009). In conclusion, frequent consumption of fried foods at baseline was found to be associated with a higher risk of hypertension during the follow-up period in a Mediterranean cohort of university graduates.
To assess the association between the consumption of sugar-sweetened carbonated beverages (SSCB) and obesity in children and adolescents from Navarra (Spain).
We used a matched case–control study design. The exposure, SSCB consumption (1 serving: 200 ml), was measured with a previously validated FFQ. Anthropometrical measures were taken using standardized protocols. The outcome, obesity, was defined as BMI above the age- and sex-specific 97th percentile according to the Spanish reference charts. In the analysis we used conditional logistic regression. Potential confounders were controlled using a multivariable model.
Subjects were recruited in the paediatric departments of the Universidad de Navarra Clinic and the Navarra Hospital Complex, and in three primary health centres of Navarra. Controls were recruited when attending for a routine medical examination or vaccination.
One hundred and seventy-four obese children and 174 individually sex- and age-matched controls, 52·87 % boys, with a mean age of 11·6 years. Exclusion criteria were dietary interventions, exposure to hormone treatment, development of secondary obesity due to endocrinopathy and serious intercurrent illness.
Independently of other factors, high consumption of SSCB (>4 servings/week) was significantly associated with obesity (OR = 3·46; 95 % CI 1·24, 9·62; P = 0·01). Besides, each additional daily serving of SSCB was associated with a 69 % relative increase in the risk of obesity (OR = 1·69; 95 % CI 1·04, 2·73; P = 0·03).
We found a strong and significant association between SSCB consumption and obesity risk. Our results suggest a monotonic dose–response linear shape for this association in children and adolescents (P for trend = 0·02).
Moderate alcohol intake has been related to lower mortality. However, alcohol use includes other dimensions beyond the amount of alcohol consumed. These aspects have not been sufficiently studied as a comprehensive entity. We aimed to test the relationship between an overall alcohol-drinking pattern and all-cause mortality. In a Mediterranean cohort study, we followed 18 394 Spanish participants up to 12 years. A validated 136-item FFQ was used to assess baseline alcohol intake. We developed a score assessing simultaneously seven aspects of alcohol consumption to capture the conformity to a traditional Mediterranean alcohol-drinking pattern (MADP). It positively scored moderate alcohol intake, alcohol intake spread out over the week, low spirit consumption, wine preference, red wine consumption, wine consumed during meals and avoidance of binge drinking. During the follow-up, 206 deaths were identified. For each 2-point increment in a 0–9 score of adherence to the MADP, we observed a 25 % relative risk reduction in mortality (95 % CI 11, 38 %). Within each category of alcohol intake, a higher adherence to the MADP was associated with lower mortality. Abstainers (excluded from the calculations of the MADP) exhibited higher mortality (hazard ratio 1·82, 95 % CI 1·14, 2·90) than participants highly adherent to the MADP. In conclusion, better adherence to an overall healthy alcohol-drinking pattern was associated with reduced mortality when compared with abstention or departure from this pattern. This reduction goes beyond the inverse association usually observed for moderate alcohol drinking. Even moderate drinkers can benefit from the advice to follow a traditional MADP.