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Previous studies suggest that migrants tend to utilise antipsychotics less often than their native-born peers. However, studies examining antipsychotic use among refugees with psychosis are lacking.
To compare the prevalence of antipsychotic drug use during the first 5 years of illness among refugees and Swedish-born individuals with a newly diagnosed non-affective psychotic disorder, and to identify sociodemographic and clinical factors associated with antipsychotic use.
The study population included refugees (n = 1656) and Swedish-born persons (n = 8908) aged 18–35 years during 2007–2018, with incident diagnosis of non-affective psychotic disorder recorded in the Swedish in-patient or specialised out-patient care register. Two-week point prevalence of antipsychotics use was assessed every 6 months in the 5 years following first diagnosis. Factors associated with antipsychotic use (versus non-use) at 1 year after diagnosis were examined with modified Poisson regression.
Refugees were somewhat less likely to use antipsychotics at 1 year after first diagnosis compared with Swedish-born persons (37.1% v. 42.2%, age- and gender-adjusted risk ratio 0.88, 95% CI 0.82–0.95). However, at the 5-year follow-up, refugees and Swedish-born individuals showed similar patterns of antipsychotic use (41.1% v. 40.4%). Among refugees, higher educational level (>12 years), previous antidepressant use and being diagnosed with schizophrenia/schizoaffective disorder at baseline were associated with an increased risk of antipsychotics use, whereas being born in Afghanistan or Iraq (compared with former Yugoslavia) was associated with decreased risk.
Our findings suggest that refugees with non-affective psychotic disorders may need targeted interventions to ensure antipsychotic use during the early phase of illness.
Psychological and pharmacological therapies are the recommended first-line treatments for common mental disorders (CMDs) but may not be universally accessible or utilised.
To determine the extent to which primary care patients with CMDs receive treatment and the impact of sociodemographic, work-related and clinical factors on treatment receipt.
National registers were used to identify all Stockholm County residents aged 19–64 years who had received at least one CMD diagnosis (depression, anxiety, stress-related) in primary care between 2014 and 2018. Individuals were followed from the date of their first observed CMD diagnosis until the end of 2019 to determine treatment receipt. Associations between patient factors and treatment group were examined using multinomial logistic regression.
Among 223 271 individuals with CMDs, 30.6% received pharmacotherapy only, 16.5% received psychological therapy only, 43.1% received both and 9.8% had no treatment. The odds of receiving any treatment were lower among males (odds ratio (OR) range = 0.76 to 0.92, 95% CI[minimum, maximum] 0.74 to 0.95), individuals born outside of Sweden (OR range = 0.67 to 0.93, 95% CI[minimum, maximum] 0.65 to 0.99) and those with stress-related disorders only (OR range = 0.21 to 0.51, 95% CI[minimum, maximum] 0.20 to 0.53). Among the patient factors examined, CMD diagnostic group, prior treatment in secondary psychiatric care and age made the largest contributions to the model (R2 difference: 16.05%, 1.72% and 1.61%, respectively).
Although over 90% of primary care patients with CMDs received pharmacological and/or psychological therapy, specific patient groups were less likely to receive treatment.
Fibromyalgia is a chronic condition characterised by widespread musculoskeletal pain. Although accumulating evidence suggests that exposure to stressful events increases the risk for this complex disorder, this is the first meta-analysis to compare the impact of a full range of lifetime stressors (e.g. physical trauma through to emotional neglect) on adult fibromyalgia.
This review was performed in accordance with PRISMA guidelines. Random-effects models examined associations between different stressor exposures and fibromyalgia status with meta-regression investigating the effects of publication year and study quality on effect sizes.
Nineteen studies were included in the meta-analysis. Significant associations with fibromyalgia status were observed for all six exposure types examined: odds ratios (OR) were highest for physical abuse (OR 3.23, 95% confidence interval 1.99–5.23) and total abuse (3.06, 1.71–5.46); intermediate for sexual abuse (2.65, 1.85–3.79) and smaller for medical trauma (1.80, 1.19–2.71), other lifetime stressors (1.70, 1.31–2.20), and emotional abuse (1.52, 1.27–1.81). Results were not significantly changed when childhood, as opposed to adult, exposures were used in studies that reported both. Meta-regression analyses demonstrated no effect of publication year or study quality on effect sizes.
This study confirmed a significant association between stressor exposure and adult fibromyalgia with the strongest associations observed for physical abuse. Limitations related to current available literature were identified; we provide several suggestions for how these can be addressed in future studies. Stressors are likely to be one of many risk factors for fibromyalgia which we argue is best approached from a biopsychosocial perspective.
Relapse rates among individuals with psychotic disorders are high. In addition to the financial burden placed on clinical services, relapse is associated with worse long-term prognosis and poorer quality of life. Robust evidence indicates that stressful life events commonly precede the onset of the first psychotic episode; however, the extent to which they are associated with relapse remains unclear. The aim of this systematic review is to summarize available research investigating the association between recent stressful life events and psychotic relapse or relapse of bipolar disorder if the diagnosis included psychotic symptoms. PsycINFO, Medline and EMBASE were searched for cross-sectional, retrospective and prospective studies published between 01/01/1970 and 08/01/2020 that investigated the association between adult stressful life events and relapse of psychosis. Study quality was assessed using the Effective Public Health Practice Project guidelines. Twenty-three studies met eligibility criteria (prospective studies: 14; retrospective studies: 6; cross-sectional: 3) providing data on 2046 participants in total (sample size range: 14–240 participants). Relapse was defined as a return of psychotic symptoms (n = 20), a return of symptoms requiring hospitalization (n = 2) and a return of symptoms or hospitalization (n = 1). Adult stressful life events were defined as life events occurring after the onset of psychosis. Stressful life events included but were not limited to adult trauma, bereavement, financial problems and conflict. Eighteen studies found a significant positive association between adult stressful life events and psychotic relapse and five studies found a non-significant association. We conclude that adult stressful life events, occurring after psychosis onset, appear to be associated with psychotic relapse.
Cognitive impairments in childhood are associated with increased risk of schizophrenia in later life, but the extent to which poor academic achievement is associated with the disorder is unclear.
Major databases were searched for articles published in English up to 31 December 2019. We conducted random-effects meta-analyses to: (1) compare general academic and mathematics achievement in youth who later developed schizophrenia and those who did not; (2) to examine the association between education level achieved and adult-onset schizophrenia; and, (3) compare general academic achievement in youth at-risk for schizophrenia and typically developing peers. Meta-regression models examined the effects of type of academic assessment, educational system, age at assessment, measurement of educational level attained, school leaving age, and study quality on academic achievement and education level among individuals with schizophrenia.
Meta-analyses, comprising data of over four million individuals, found that: (1) by age 16 years, those who later developed schizophrenia had poorer general academic (Cohen's d = −0.29, p ⩽ 0.0001) and mathematics achievement (d = −0.23, p = 0.01) than those who did not; (2) individuals with schizophrenia were less likely to enter higher education (odds ratio = 0.49, p ⩽ 0.0001); and, (3) youth reporting psychotic-like experiences and youth with a family history of schizophrenia had lower general academic achievement (d = −0.54, p ⩽ 0.0001; d = −0.39, p ⩽ 0.0001, respectively). Meta-regression analyses determined no effect modifiers.
Despite significant heterogeneity across studies, various routinely collected indices of academic achievement can identify premorbid cognitive dysfunction among individuals who are vulnerable for schizophrenia, potentially aiding the early identification of risk in the population.
The recall of conditionally discharged forensic patients in England is a formal order from the Ministry of Justice under the Mental Health Act (1983) which has the power to revoke conditional release and direct readmission to hospital. Recall has significant implications for the individual and for hospital services, but despite this, little is known about predictors of recall for forensic patients.
We examined the rate of recall for 101 patients conditionally discharged from medium secure forensic inpatient services between 2007 and 2013. Demographic, clinical, and forensic factors were examined as possible predictors of time to recall using Cox regression survival techniques.
Conditionally discharged patients were followed for an average of 811 days, during which 45 (44.5%) were recalled to hospital. Younger age (HR 1.89; 95% CI 1.02–3.49; p = 0.04), non-white ethnicity (HR 3.44; 95% CI 1.45–8.13), substance abuse history (HR 2.52; 95% CI 1.17–5.43), early violence (HR 1.90; 95% CI 1.03–3.50), early childhood maladjustment (HR 1.92; 95% CI 1.01–3.68), treatment with a depot medication (HR 2.17; 95% CI 1.14–4.11), being known to mental health services (HR 3.44; 95% CI 1.06–11.16), and a psychiatric admission prior to the index admission (HR 2.44; 95% CI 1.08–5.52) were significantly associated with a shorter time to recall. Treatment with clozapine reduced the risk of recall to hospital (HR 0.40; 95% CI 0.20–0.79).
Time to recall can be predicted by a range of factors that are readily available to clinical teams. Further research is required to determine if targeted interventions can modify the likelihood or time to recall for conditionally released forensic patients.
Studies indicate that risk of mortality is higher for patients admitted
to acute hospitals at the weekend. However, less is known about clinical
outcomes among patients admitted to psychiatric hospitals.
To investigate whether weekend admission to a psychiatric hospital is
associated with worse clinical outcomes.
Data were obtained from 45 264 consecutive psychiatric hospital
admissions. The association of weekend admission with in-patient
mortality, duration of hospital admission and risk of readmission was
investigated using multivariable regression analyses. Secondary analyses
were performed to investigate the distribution of admissions, discharges,
in-patient mortality, episodes of seclusion and violent incidents on
different days of the week.
There were 7303 weekend admissions (16.1%). Patients who were aged
between 26 and 35 years, female or from a minority ethnic group were more
likely to be admitted at the weekend. Patients admitted at the weekend
were more likely to present via acute hospital services, other
psychiatric hospitals and the criminal justice system than to be admitted
directly from their own home. Weekend admission was associated with a
shorter duration of admission (B coefficient –21.1 days,
95% CI –24.6 to –17.6, P<0.001) and an increased risk
of readmission in the 12 months following index admission (incidence rate
ratio 1.13, 95% CI 1.08 to 1.18, P<0.001), but
in-patient mortality (odds ratio (OR) = 0.79, 95% CI 0.51 to 1.23,
P = 0.30) was not greater than for weekday admission.
Fewer episodes of seclusion occurred at the weekend but there was no
significant variation in deaths during hospital admission or violent
incidents on different days of the week.
Being admitted at the weekend was not associated with an increased risk
of in-patient mortality. However, patients admitted at the weekend had
shorter admissions and were more likely to be readmitted, suggesting that
they may represent a different clinical population to those admitted
during the week. This is an important consideration if mental healthcare
services are to be implemented across a 7-day week.
Psychological stress is implicated in the development of schizophrenia, but little is known about experiences of stress among children at elevated risk for the disorder.
To examine stressor exposure and reactivity in children with different vulnerability profiles for schizophrenia: (a) children presenting multiple antecedents of schizophrenia (ASz group), (b) children with a family history of schizophrenia (FHx group) and (c) typically developing low-risk (TD) children.
Ninety-five children (ASz = 29; FHx = 19; ASz+FHx = 5; TD = 42), identified aged 9–12 years using a community-based screening procedure or as relatives of individuals with schizophrenia, completed questionnaires assessing environmental stressors and psychopathology at age 11–14 years.
Relative to their typically developing peers, children in the FHx and ASz groups were exposed to a greater number of negative life events and a higher frequency of daily stressors, respectively; and were more distressed by these experiences.
Stress exposure and reactivity may constitute useful targets of early intervention for psychosis.
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