To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure email@example.com
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
Ketamine has emerged as a novel therapeutic agent for major depressive episodes, spurring interest in its potential to augment electroconvulsive therapy (ECT).
We sought to update our preliminary systematic review and meta-analysis, focusing on randomised controlled trials (RCTs) involving an index course of ECT, and testing the hypothesis that lack of efficacy is due to barbiturate anaesthetic co-administration.
We searched EMBASE, CENTRAL and Medline to identify RCTs examining the efficacy of ketamine during a course of ECT. Data were synthesised from ten trials (ketamine group n = 333, comparator group n = 269) using pooled random effects models.
Electroconvulsive therapy with ketamine was not associated with greater improvements in depressive symptoms or higher rates of clinical response or remission, nor did it result in pro-cognitive effects. This held true when limiting analysis to trials without barbiturate anaesthetic co-administration. Increased rates of confusion were reported.
Overall, our analyses do not support using ketamine over other induction agents in ECT.
Neurosurgery may involve significant blood loss and frequently requires allogeneic red blood cell (RBC) transfusion. Preoperative recombinant erythropoietin (EPO) may be used to improve erythroid status and recovery, and used either alone or in combination with preoperative autologous donation (PAD) it may reduce exposure to allogeneic RBC. We wished to study the use of EPO with and without PAD and the risk of RBC transfusion in neurosurgery.
Using a retrospective case-control design, 57 patients who received EPO preoperatively were matched 2:1 for age, sex, year of surgery, and International Classification of Diseases code most responsible for surgery (three were excluded because of stringent matching criteria, leaving 54 cases and 108 comparison subjects). Thirty-two cases participated in PAD. Medical and anesthetic records as well as laboratory investigations were reviewed and extracted.
Allogeneic RBC exposure was identical for EPO cases and comparison subjects (18.5%). Concomitant PAD and EPO did not reduce allogeneic RBC exposure (21.9%), and resulted in a greater number of RBC units transfused. Last recorded hemoglobin levels suggested that autologous RBCs were not more liberally used. Patients who engaged in PAD and EPO suffered from iatrogenic anemia. A significant proportion (58.6%) of the autologous RBCs was ultimately not used and discarded.
Further research is needed to determine the efficacy of EPO in neurological surgery. PAD does not appear to reduce the risk of allogeneic RBC transfusion, despite concomitant EPO. Indeed, PAD resulted in iatrogenic anemia and increased transfusion requirements. The cost-effectiveness of blood conservation efforts in neurosurgery deserves additional research.