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The histories of chronicles composed in England during the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries and onwards, with a focus on texts belonging to or engaging with the Prose Brut tradition, are thefocus of this volume. The contributors examine the composition, dissemination and reception of historical texts written in Anglo-Norman, Latin and English, including the Prose Brut chronicle (c. 1300 and later), Castleford's Chronicle (c. 1327), and Nicholas Trevet's Les Cronicles (c. 1334), looking at questions of the processes of writing, rewriting, printing and editing history. They cross traditional boundaries of subject and period, taking multi-disciplinary approaches to their studies in order to underscore the (shifting) historical, social and political contexts inwhich medieval English chronicles were used and read from the fourteenth century through to the present day. As such, the volume honours the pioneering work of the late Professor Lister M. Matheson, whose research in this area demonstrated that a full understanding of medieval historical literature demands attention to both the content of the works in question and to the material circumstances of producing those works.
Jaclyn Rajsic is a Lecturer in Medieval Literature in the School of English and Drama at Queen Mary University of London; Erik Kooper taught Old and Middle English at Utrecht University; until his retirement in 2007; Dominique Hoche is an Associate Professor at West Liberty University in West Virginia.
Contributors: Elizabeth J. Bryan, Caroline D. Eckhardt, A.S.G. Edwards, Dan Embree, Alexander L. Kaufman, Edward Donald Kennedy, Erik Kooper, Julia Marvin, William Marx, Krista A. Murchison, Heather Pagan, Jaclyn Rajsic, Christine M. Rose, NeilWeijer
To assess possible transmission modes of, and risk factors for, gastroenteritis associated with Norwalk-like viruses (NLVs) in a geriatric long-term-care facility.
During a prolonged outbreak of acute gastroenteritis, epidemiological data on illness among residents and employees were collected in conjunction with stool, vomitus, and environmental specimens for viral testing. NLVs were identified by electron microscopy in stool and vomitus specimens, and further characterized by reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction and nucleotide sequencing. Potential risk factors were examined through medical-record review, personal interview, and a self-administered questionnaire sent to all employees.
During the outbreak period, 52 (57%) of 91 residents and 34 (35%) of 90 employees developed acute gastroenteritis. Four case-residents were hospitalized; three residents died at the facility shortly after onset of illness. A point source was not identified; no association between food or water consumption and gastroenteritis was identified. A single NLV strain genetically related to Toronto virus was the only pathogen identified. Residents were at significantly higher risk of gastroenteritis if they were physically debilitated (relative risk [RR], 3.5; 95% confidence interval [CI95], 1.0-12.9), as were employees exposed to residents with acute gastroenteritis (RR, 2.6; CI95, 1.1-6.5) or ill household members (RR, 2.3; CI95, 1.4-3.6). Adherence to infection control measures among the nursing staff may have reduced the risk of gastroenteritis, but the reduction did not reach statistical significance.
In the absence of evidence for food-borne or waterborne transmission, NLVs likely spread among residents and employees of a long-term-care facility through person-to-person or airborne droplet transmission. Rapid notification of local health officials, collection of clinical specimens, and institution of infection control measures are necessary if viral gastroenteritis transmission is to be limited in institutional settings
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