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Manhattan, Berlin and New Delhi all need to take action to adapt to climate change and to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. While case studies on these cities provide valuable insights, comparability and scalability remain sidelined. It is therefore timely to review the state-of-the-art in data infrastructures, including earth observations, social media data, and how they could be better integrated to advance climate change science in cities and urban areas. We present three routes for expanding knowledge on global urban areas: mainstreaming data collections, amplifying the use of big data and taking further advantage of computational methods to analyse qualitative data to gain new insights. These data-based approaches have the potential to upscale urban climate solutions and effect change at the global scale.
Long-term conditions often coexist with depression and anxiety.
To assess the effectiveness of stepped-care psychological therapies for patients with long-term conditions.
Data from 28 498 patients were analysed using regression to model depression (Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9)) and anxiety (Generalised Anxiety Disorder scale (GAD-7)) outcomes. Post-treatment symptoms and effect sizes (d) were estimated for individuals with and without long-term conditions, controlling for covariates. The likelihood of access and response to intensive psychological interventions was also examined.
Higher post-treatment symptoms were predicted for patients with musculoskeletal problems (d = 0.22–0.27), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (d = 0.26–0.33), diabetes (d = 0.05–0.13) and psychotic disorders (d = 0.50–0.58). Most long-term conditions were associated with greater odds of accessing high-intensity therapies, yet individuals who accessed these continued to have higher average post-treatment symptoms.
Some long-term conditions are associated with greater intensity of care and poorer outcomes after therapy.
To establish the source and contamination routes resulting in positive clinical and surveillance microbiological cultures with carbapenem-resistant, GIM-1 metallo-β-lactamase–positive Acinetobacter pitii and Acinetobacter radioresistens from 21 patients in 8 departments
Retrospective, descriptive study.
A 1,300-bed tertiary care academic medical facility consisting of 90 buildings linked by a pneumatic transport system (PTS).
Microbiological workup of the cluster strains included matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight species identification, phenotypic carbapenemase tests, polymerase chain reaction–based genotyping of carbapenemase, and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. Outbreak management procedures were employed according to institutional regulations.
The rarity of GIM-1 Acinetobacter species in the hospital and region, the lack of epidemiological links between patients, and the fact that in some patients the apparent colonization was clearly nonnosocomial prompted the suspicion of a pseudo-outbreak. Numerous environmental cultures were positive for GIM-1-positive Acinetobacter (including archived sample requisition forms, PTS capsules, cultures from line-diverter and dispenser stations, and sterilized transport capsules following PTS delivery). Moreover, it was observed that condensation fluid from subterranean PTS tubing resulted in water entry in PTS capsules, possibly conferring specimen contamination. After extensive system disinfection, environmental surveys of the PTS were negative, and no further positive patient specimens were encountered.
This is the first report of a PTS-associated pseudo-outbreak. The large number of falsely positive patient-related specimens in conjunction with the potential hazard of airborne and contact spread of multidrug-resistant microorganisms (in this case, GIM-1 carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter species) underscores the need for implementation of infection control–based monitoring and operating procedures in a hospital PTS.
This study provides an introduction to, and overview of, several
papers that resulted from a randomized control trial that evaluated a new
cognitive rehabilitation protocol. The program was designed to improve
general strategic abilities in ways that would be expressed in a broad
range of functional domains. The trial, which was conducted on a sample of
older adults who had experienced normal age-related cognitive decline,
assessed performance in the following domains: memory, goal management,
and psychosocial status. The general rationale for the trial, the overall
experimental design, and the approach to statistical analyses that are
relevant to each paper are described here. The results for each functional
domain are reported in separate papers in this series (JINS,
2007, 13, 120–131.)
This study provides an overview of the papers emanating from the
experimental trial that evaluated a new cognitive rehabilitation program
in older adults who were experiencing normal cognitive decline. The main
features of the design are summarized, along with evidence that the
training produced long-lasting improvement in memory performance, goal
management, and psychosocial status. The benefits were attributed to
several factors, including the program's emphasis on techniques that
promoted efficient strategic processing. Limitations of the program and
directions for future research are discussed (JINS, 2007,
In their zeal to transform rural society during the 1920s, Mexican educators undertook a number of projects that in retrospect seem unusual. Fancying themselves as the intellectual heirs of the earliest Catholic friars, they sent “missionaries” into the countryside to preach the gospel of progress, developed rigid definitions of the appropriate forms of rural living, and even taught school children in Mexico City to paint according to pre-Colombian styles in order to build a harmonious nation. These were indeed creative ideas, but none was more imaginative than the decision to establish a Rural Normal School in the midst of the largest urban center in the country. Established in the Anáhuac neighborhood of Mexico City in 1926, the Casa del Estudiante Indígena was hailed as the centerpiece of the government's commitment to Indian education. Inside the Casa a culturally diverse student population, speaking mutually unintelligible languages, would be transformed into models of the national culture. They would adopt modern dress and practices, learn perfect Spanish, and in turn bring the benefits of modernity to their home communities.
This article examines the creation of an Indian ideal within Indigenismo
in the years 1920–40. While scholars argue that Indigenismo
described a degenerate
Indian ‘other’, this article shows that it often represented
the Indian as a model
for revolutionary politics and culture. This is evident first in Indigenista
celebrations of Indian cultures during the 1920s, and in their valorisation
Indians as rational political actors with modern sensibilities during the
validating this ‘modern’ Indian, Indigenistas
created a limited framework for
legitimate ‘Indian politics’ which took place within the national
However, they also labelled Indians who challenged revolutionary programs
‘primitive’ and ‘pre-political’.
C-ret proto-oncogene encodes a protein in the tyrosine kinase (TK) family of transmembrane receptors for growth factors. C-ret expression has been identified in normal tissues and tumors of neural crest origin such as inherited MEN (multiple endocrine neoplasia) syndromes, particularly medullary thyroid cancers where there are confirmed germ-line mutations. Gene rearrangement has been observed in papillary thyroid carcinomas (PTC) and has been shown to have cytoplasmic localization of the altered gene product. C-ret proto-oncogene product is also necessary for the normal development of the peripheral nervous system, enteric nervous system and the kidney. A recent profile of the TK receptors in prostate cancer (PCA) identified c-ret protein in prostate cancer tissue and xenograft derived from human PCA. This study is the first to report the immunohistochemical (IH) evaluation of c-ret in human prostatic tissue.
Thirty radical prostatectomy specimens for PCA were formalin-fixed, sectioned at 5mm and paraffin-embedded.
Transmission electron microscopy of He-implanted Si-Ge and InGaAs shows an attractive interaction between cavities and dislocations. Calculation indicates that cavities are attracted to dislocations through surrounding strain fields, and strong binding (100s of eV) occurs when a cavity intersects the core. In a strained SiGe/Si heterostructure, He implantation enhances relaxation rates, and cavities bound to misfit dislocations show evidence of increasing relaxation at equilibrium by lowering dislocation energies. The interaction is expected for all crystalline solids, and gives insight into voids in GaN/sapphire and bubbles in He-implanted metals.
Recent investigations have profoundly modified our conception of the value of the histological elements of the nervous system. Conflicting opinions are still held on many points of primary importance, perhaps the chief of which is the relation of the nerve fibre to the nerve cell. The origin of the nerve fibre is a problem of vital interest not only to the embryologist, but also to the physiologist and the pathologist. It has long been the subject of controversy, and, in spite of numerous valuable researches, we are still far from knowing the relation of the nerve fibre to the central neuroblast, a relation of essential importance in the understanding of all neuro-pathological questions.
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