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We demonstrate a suspended graphene-(poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) polymer angular displacement actuator enabled by variable elastic modulus of the perforated stacked structure. Azimuthal flexures support a central disc-shaped membrane, and compression of the membrane can be used to control the rotation of the entire structure. Irradiating the PMMA on graphene stack with 5 kV electrons in a convention scanning electron microscope reduces the elastic modulus of the PMMA and allows graphene’s built in strain to dominate and compress the flexures, thus rotating the actuator.
In this report, we demonstrate the use of helium ion milling for the controllable fabrication of nanostructures in few-layer hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN). Using the direct-write lithographic capabilities of a scanning helium ion microscope (HIM), nanopores with diameters as small as 4 nm and nanoribbons with widths of 3 – 10 nm are etched from suspended h-BN sheets. This ability to pattern h-BN sheets with high-throughput and sub-10 nm precision paves the way for future studies that make use of atomically-thin, nanostructured insulators such as those needed for nanopore sequencing and patterned van der Waals heterostructures.