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An ‘assertive approach’ to clozapine, where nasogastric administration is approved, is assessed through a case-load analysis to provide the first systematic description of its use and outcomes worldwide.
Five of the most extremely ill patients with treatment-resistant schizophrenia were established and/or maintained on clozapine, resulting in improvements to their mental state; incidents were reduced, segregation was terminated and progression to less restrictive environments was achieved.
Despite being underutilised and rarely enforced, in extreme circumstances, an assertive approach to clozapine can be justified. Nasogastric clozapine can be safely delivered and the approach itself, rather than actual nasogastric administration, may be enough to help establish and maintain patients with treatment-resistant schizophrenia on the most effective treatment.
Declaration of interest
E.S. has received speaker fees from Jansen Pharmaceuticals and Novartis.
Hospitalized older adults are at high risk of falling. The HELPER system is a ceiling-mounted fall detection system that sends an alert to a smartphone when a fall is detected. This article describes the performance of the HELPER system, which was pilot tested in a geriatric mental health hospital. The system’s accuracy in detecting falls was measured against the hospital records documenting falls. Following the pilot test, nurses were interviewed regarding their perceptions of this technology. In this study, the HELPER system missed one documented fall but detected four falls that were not documented. Although sensitivity (.80) of the system was high, numerous false alarms brought down positive predictive value (.01). Interviews with nurses provided valuable insights based on the operation of the technology in a real environment; these and other lessons learned will be particularly valuable to engineers developing this and other health and social care technologies.
This study uses stable carbon δ13C and oxygen δ18O isotope compositions data to assess the extent to which diet breadths of northwestern Guyana changed during the Holocene. We analyzed human bone and enamel remains from seven shell mound sites dating between 7500 and 2600 BP. Our analyses demonstrate some constancy in C3 plant availability during the past several thousand years, though we note increasing reliance on such plants beginning in the Early Holocene. We also document warming intervals during the Early Holocene (Early Archaic) that appear to correlate with dry periods known elsewhere in the central Amazon during this period.
The re-emergence of debates on the decolonisation of knowledge has revived interest in the National Question, which began over a century ago and remains unresolved. Tensions that were suppressed and hidden in the past are now being openly debated. Despite this, the goal of one united nation living prosperously under a constitutional democracy remains elusive. This edited volume examines the way in which various strands of left thought have addressed the National Question, especially during the apartheid years, and goes on to discuss its relevance for South Africa today and in the future. Instead of imposing a particular understanding of the National Question, the editors identified a number of political traditions and allowed contributors the freedom to define the question as they believed appropriate – in other words, to explain what they thought was the Unresolved National Question. This has resulted in a rich tapestry of interweaving perceptions. The volume is structured in two parts. The first examines four foundational traditions: Marxism-Leninism (the Colonialism of a Special Type thesis); the Congress tradition; the Trotskyist tradition; and Africanism. The second part explores the various shifts in the debate from the 1960s onwards, and includes chapters on Afrikaner nationalism, ethnic issues, black consciousness, feminism, workerism and constitutionalism. The editors hope that by revisiting the debates not popularly known among the scholarly mainstream, this volume will become a catalyst for an enriched debate on our identity and our future.
Many ethical dilemmas in medicine are associated with highly unusual clinical situations and are an almost daily challenge for mental health teams. We describe the ethical issues that arose in relation to a significant difference of opinion between team members about using nasogastric clozapine in the treatment of a severely ill patient. We discuss how conflicting emotions and perspectives within teams acquire ethical significance and how negotiation and reflection are essential for good-quality ethical reasoning to take place.
• Understand the different effects and importance of reasoning and emotions in moral decision-making
• Use a clinical scenario involving a difficult and controversial procedure to explore the impact of social persuasion in moral decision-making
• Consider the effects of heuristics against rational thinking
Studies indicate that risk of mortality is higher for patients admitted
to acute hospitals at the weekend. However, less is known about clinical
outcomes among patients admitted to psychiatric hospitals.
To investigate whether weekend admission to a psychiatric hospital is
associated with worse clinical outcomes.
Data were obtained from 45 264 consecutive psychiatric hospital
admissions. The association of weekend admission with in-patient
mortality, duration of hospital admission and risk of readmission was
investigated using multivariable regression analyses. Secondary analyses
were performed to investigate the distribution of admissions, discharges,
in-patient mortality, episodes of seclusion and violent incidents on
different days of the week.
There were 7303 weekend admissions (16.1%). Patients who were aged
between 26 and 35 years, female or from a minority ethnic group were more
likely to be admitted at the weekend. Patients admitted at the weekend
were more likely to present via acute hospital services, other
psychiatric hospitals and the criminal justice system than to be admitted
directly from their own home. Weekend admission was associated with a
shorter duration of admission (B coefficient –21.1 days,
95% CI –24.6 to –17.6, P<0.001) and an increased risk
of readmission in the 12 months following index admission (incidence rate
ratio 1.13, 95% CI 1.08 to 1.18, P<0.001), but
in-patient mortality (odds ratio (OR) = 0.79, 95% CI 0.51 to 1.23,
P = 0.30) was not greater than for weekday admission.
Fewer episodes of seclusion occurred at the weekend but there was no
significant variation in deaths during hospital admission or violent
incidents on different days of the week.
Being admitted at the weekend was not associated with an increased risk
of in-patient mortality. However, patients admitted at the weekend had
shorter admissions and were more likely to be readmitted, suggesting that
they may represent a different clinical population to those admitted
during the week. This is an important consideration if mental healthcare
services are to be implemented across a 7-day week.
Microlensing surveys have ruled out that the dark halos of the Milky Way and M31 are composed entirely of massive compact halo objects (MACHOs) for a wide range of MACHO masses. We have tried using the Subaru telescope to improve the limit on Moon-mass MACHOs, which is the lowest decade in MACHO mass that can be probed by microlensing. Unfortunately, only a half-night of Subaru data was obtained and this is not enough; at least 2 nights of data are required. the current limit is based on nearly 6 years of observations with smaller telescopes.
The MEGA microlensing survey is introduced and several topics about variable stars in M31 are discussed. An adopted model population of semiregular (SR) variable stars is presented, and the efficiency to recover these stars in M31 in a specific example MEGA dataset is predicted. The period-flux amplitude relation of the SRs discovered by MEGA could be used to measure the inclination of the M31 disk.