To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure firstname.lastname@example.org
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
Tibraca limbativentris (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) is a major pest in Neotropical rice agroecosystems. In autumn–winter, this pest takes refuge in rice stubble and in native vegetation, which allows it to re-colonize the crop during the rice growing season. However, it is still unknown whether this vegetation is a pest sink or is actually a natural trap that contributes to pest population biocontrol. Here we present information on the insect's alternative host plants, a preliminary outline of the relationship between plant phylogeny and insect abundance, and the impact that winter natural enemies have in pest population. Also, we include a proposed methodology for pest density analysis in winter hosts. Our results show significant differences in the abundance/density that T. limbativentris reaches in the 12 host plant species present in our study areas, with a plant-use pattern significantly related to the phylogenetic clade of Poales. Stink bug winter populations mainly comprised diapause adults, and 40% of insect digestive tracts had content. Survival of T. limbativentris was 56.92% in winter hosts. About mortality, 10% was due to undetermined causes and 33.08% due to entomopathogenic fungi, showing a natural regulation of the pest population. Our results suggest that native vegetation impacts winter survival of T. limbativentris. Although these plants offer shelter, they offer a greater contribution to Integrated Pest Management: the natural regulation of winter pest populations through entomopathogenic attack. Further studies on T. limbativentris population dynamics and the preservation of native areas near rice fields will be required for the development of best control practices.
Describe and validate the CHROME (CHemical Restraints avOidance MEthodology) criteria.
Observational prospective longitudinal study.
Single nursing home in Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, Spain.
288 residents; mean age: 81.6 (SD 10.6). 77.4% had dementia.
Multicomponent training and consultancy program to eliminate physical and chemical restraints and promote overall quality care. Clinicians were trained in stringent diagnostic criteria of neuropsychiatric syndromes and adequate psychotropic prescription.
Psychotropic prescription (primary study target), neuropsychiatric syndromes, physical restraints, falls, and emergency room visits were semi-annually collected from December 2015 to December 2017. Results are presented for all residents and for those who had dementia and participated in the five study waves (completer analysis, n=107).
For the study completers, atypical neuroleptic prescription dropped from 42.7% to 18.7%, long half-life benzodiazepines dropped from 25.2% to 6.5%, and hypnotic medications from 47.7% to 12.1% (p<0.0005). Any kind of fall evolved from 67.3 to 32.7 (number of falls by 100 residents per year). Physicians’ diagnostic confidence increased, while the frequency of diagnoses of neuropsychiatric syndromes decreased (p<0.0005).
Implementing the CHROME criteria reduced the prescription of the most dangerous medications in institutionalized people with dementia. Two independent audits found no physical or chemical restraint and confirmed prescription quality of psychotropic drugs. Adequate diagnosis and independent audits appear to be the keys to help and motivate professionals to optimize and reduce the use of psychotropic medication. The CHROME criteria unify, in a single compendium, neuropsychiatric diagnostic criteria, prescription guidelines, independent audit methodology, and minimum legal standards. These criteria can be easily adapted to other countries.
This study examined (1) the association of dietary energy density from solid (EDS) and solid plus liquids (EDSL) with adiposity and cardiometabolic risk factors (CRF) in children with overweight and obesity, (2) the effect of under-reporting on the mentioned associations and (3) whether the association between ED and body composition and CRF is influenced by levels of physical activity. In a cross-sectional design, 208 overweight and obese children (8–12-year-old; 111 boys) completed two non-consecutive 24 h recalls. ED was calculated using two different approaches: EDS and EDSL. Under-reporters were determined with the Goldberg method. Body composition, anthropometry and fasting blood sample measurements were performed. Moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) was registered with accelerometers (7-d-register). Linear regressions were performed to evaluate the association of ED with the previously mentioned variables. Neither EDS nor EDSL were associated with body composition or CRF. However, when under-reporters were excluded, EDS was positively associated with BMI (P=0·019), body fat percentage (P=0·005), abdominal fat (P=0·008) and fat mass index (P=0·018), while EDSL was positively associated with body fat percentage (P=0·008) and fat mass index (P=0·026). When stratifying the group according to physical activity recommendations, the aforementioned associations were only maintained for non-compliers. Cluster analysis showed that the low-ED and high-MVPA group presented the healthiest profile for all adiposity and CRF. These findings could partly explain inconsistencies in literature, as we found that different ED calculations entail distinct results. Physical activity levels and excluding under-reporters greatly influence the associations between ED and adiposity in children with overweight and obesity.
An iron catalyst supported on the modified Tamazert kaolin has been prepared and tested in catalytic wet peroxide oxidation using phenol and 4-chlorophenol (4-CP) as target compounds (100 mg/L initial concentration). Kaolin is not usually employed as a catalytic support due to its low developed porous structure, but its textural properties may be improved upon calcination and acid and basic treatment. The catalyst was characterized by N2 adsorption–desorption and chemical analysis by total-reflection X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy. The catalytic tests were carried out in a batch reactor with a stoichiometric amount of H2O2. The catalytic efficiency was studied within the temperature range of 25–55°C at an initial pH of 3.3 and 1 g/L catalyst. Complete phenol and 4-CP removal was achieved with no significant differences in phenol and 4-CP conversions within the temperature range tested. Meanwhile, total organic carbon (TOC) reduction was greatly favoured by increasing the temperature, which may be partially attributed to a probable contribution of a homogeneous reaction associated with iron leaching. However, this effect might be of limited significance because the highest concentrations of iron in the liquid phase were below 4.5 and 8.5 mg/L in the experiments with phenol and 4-CP, respectively. At 55°C, TOC was reduced by ~70% after 4 h reaction time, with the remaining by-products corresponding almost completely to low-molecular-weight carboxylic acids of very low ecotoxicity.
In this study, we undertake a dosimetric comparison of whole abdominal treatment plans of patients diagnosed with stage 3 Wilms tumour, to assess the benefits of treating these patients with volumetric arch therapy (VMAT) versus 3D conformal radiotherapy.
Material and methods
A retrospective study was undertaken on 23 patients receiving either VMAT or 3D conformal radiotherapy during 2013–2017. A dosimetric comparison was undertaken for both techniques, measuring planning target volume (PTV), conformity index (CI), homogeneity index (HI) and organs at risk (OAR).
The dosimetric parameters for the PTV dose in the VMAT and 3D conformal technique showed no statistical difference (1,289·17 cGy versus 1,357·13 cGy, respectively, p=0·404). However, the VMAT technique had a better CI (1·04 VMAT versus 1·26 3D, p=0·004), and there was little difference in the HI (1·13 VMAT versus 1·15 3D, p=0·1606). In the statistical analysis, the decrease in dose to OAR for the VMAT technique is statistically significant for doses to lung and kidney (p=0·011 and p=0·002, respectively). Between the two techniques, there was no statistical significance in dose difference to the other OAR.
This work proposes using the VMAT technique in whole abdominal irradiation to improve conformity, without affecting the quality of the PTV coverage, when compared with the 3D conformal technique. In addition, VMAT reduces the doses to OAR such as the remaining kidney and lungs that are important to preserve to reduce the probability of radiation toxicity in these patients.
This study aimed to evaluate the associations between the muscle mass to visceral fat (MVF) ratio and cardiometabolic risk factors in a large population of college students in Colombia and to propose cut-off points of this index for the metabolic syndrome (MetS). A total of 1464 young adults recruited from the FUPRECOL (Asociación de la Fuerza Prensil con Manifestaciones Tempranas de Riesgo Cardiovascular en Jóvenes y Adultos Colombianos) study were categorised into four groups based on their MVF ratio. Muscle mass and visceral fat level of the participants were measured using a bioelectrical impedance analysis. Cardiometabolic risk factors including lifestyle characteristics, anthropometry, blood pressure and biochemical parameters were assessed. The prevalence of moderate to severe obesity, hypertension and the MetS was higher in subjects in quartile (Q)1 (lower MVF ratio) (P <0·001). ANCOVA revealed that the subjects in Q1 had higher cardiometabolic disturbances, including altered anthropometry, blood pressure, muscle strength and biochemical parameters after adjusting for age and sex compared with young adults in higher MVF ratio quartiles (P <0·001). Muscular mass and physical activity levels were significantly lower in subjects with a lower MVF ratio (P <0·001). The receiver operating characteristic curve analyses indicated that in men the best MVF ratio cut-off point for detecting the MetS was 18·0 (AUC 0·83, sensitivity 78 % and specificity 77 %) and for women, the MVF ratio cut-off point was 13·7 (AUC 0·85, sensitivity 76 % and specificity 87 %). A lower MVF ratio is associated with a higher risk cardiometabolic profile in early adulthood, supporting that the MVF ratio could be used as a complementary screening tool that may help clinicians identify young adults at high cardiometabolic risk.
To analyze the impact of the International Nosocomial Infection Control Consortium (INICC) Multidimensional Approach (IMA) and the INICC Surveillance Online System (ISOS) on central line-associated bloodstream infection (CLABSI) rates in 14 intensive care units (ICUs) in Argentina from January 2014 to April 2017.
This prospective, pre–post surveillance study of 3,940 ICU patients was conducted in 11 hospitals in 5 cities in Argentina. During our baseline evaluation, we performed outcome and process surveillance of CLABSI applying Centers for Disease Control and Prevention/National Health Safety Network (CDC/NHSN) definitions. During the intervention, we implemented the IMA through ISOS: (1) a bundle of infection prevention practice interventions, (2) education, (3) outcome surveillance, (4) process surveillance, (5) feedback on CLABSI rates and consequences, and (6) performance feedback of process surveillance. Bivariate and multivariate regression analyses were performed using a logistic regression model to estimate the effect of the intervention on the CLABSI rate.
During the baseline period, 5,118 CL days and 49 CLABSIs were recorded, for a rate of 9.6 CLABSIs per 1,000 central-line (CL) days. During the intervention, 15,659 CL days and 68 CLABSIs were recorded, for a rate of 4.1 CLABSIs per 1,000 CL days. The CLABSI rate was reduced by 57% (incidence density rate: 0.43; 95% confidence interval, 0.34–0.6; P<.001).
Implementing IMA through ISOS was associated with a significant reduction in the CLABSI rate in ICUs in Argentina.
To determine the association between the use of opioids and benzodiazepines and the risk of falls with hip fracture in populations older than 65 years in Colombia.
A case-control study with patients older than 65 years with diagnosis of hip fracture. Two controls were obtained per case. The drugs dispensed in the previous 30 days were identified. Sociodemographic, diagnostic, pharmacological (opioids and benzodiazepines), and polypharmacy variables were analyzed. A logistic regression model was used to analyze the risk of fall with hip fracture while using these drugs.
We included 287 patients with hip fractures and 574 controls. There was a female predominance (72.1%) and a mean age of 82.4 ± 8.0 years. Of the patients, 12.7% had been prescribed with opioids and 4.2% with benzodiazepines in the previous month. The adjusted multivariate analysis found that using opioids (OR:4.49; 95%CI:2.72–7.42) and benzodiazepines (OR:3.73; 95%CI:1.60–8.70) in the month prior to the event was significantly associated with a greater probability of suffering a fall with hip fracture.
People who are taking opioids and benzodiazepines have increased risk for hip fracture in Colombia. Strategies to educate physicians regarding the pharmacology of older adults should be strengthened.
Here we present a new site in the Sierra de Atapuerca (Burgos, Spain): Galería de las Estatuas (GE), which provides new information about Mousterian occupations in the Iberian Plateau. The GE was an ancient entrance to the cave system, which is currently closed and sealed by a stalagmitic crust, below which a detritic sedimentary sequence of more than 2 m is found. This has been divided into five litostratigraphic units with a rich assemblage of faunal and lithic remains of clear Mousterian affinity. Radiocarbon dates provide minimum ages and suggest occupations older than 45 14C ka BP. The palynological analysis detected a landscape change to increased tree coverage, which suggests that the sequence recorded a warming episode. The macromammal assemblage is composed of both ungulates (mainly red deer and equids) and carnivores. Taphonomic analysis reveals both anthropic, and to a lesser extent, carnivore activities. The GE was occupied by Neanderthals and also sporadically by carnivores. This new site broadens the information available regarding different human occupations at the Sierra de Atapuerca, which emphasizes the importance of this site-complex for understanding human evolution in Western Europe.
To determine the effects of lipid-based nutrient supplements (LNS) on children’s Hb, linear growth and development, compared with supplementation with micronutrient powder (MNP).
The study was a two-arm parallel-group randomized controlled trial, where participants received either LNS or MNP for daily consumption during 6 months. Supplements were delivered by staff at government-run health centres. Hb, anthropometric, motor development, language development and problem-solving indicators were measured by trained research assistants when children were 12 months of age.
The study was conducted in five rural districts in the Province of Ambo in the Department of Huánuco, Peru.
We enrolled 6-month-old children (n 422) at nineteen health centres.
Children who received LNS had a higher mean Hb concentration and lower odds of anaemia than those who received MNP. No significant differences in height-for-age, weight-for-height or weight-for-age Z-score, or stunting and underweight prevalence, were observed. Provision of LNS was associated with a higher pre-verbal language (gestures) score, but such effect lost significance after adjustment for covariates. Children in the LNS group had higher problem-solving task scores and increased odds of achieving this cognitive task than children in the MNP group. No significant differences were observed on receptive language or gross motor development.
LNS between 6 and 12 months of age increased Hb concentration, reduced anaemia and improved cognitive development in children, but showed no effects on anthropometric indicators, motor or language development.
To investigate dietary sources of Ca and vitamin D (VitD) intakes, and the associated sociodemographic and lifestyle factors, among European adolescents.
Linear regression mixed models were used to examine sex-specific associations of Ca and VitD intakes with parental education, family affluence (FAS), physical activity and television (TV) watching while controlling for age, Tanner stage, energy intake and diet quality.
The Healthy Lifestyle in Europe by Nutrition in Adolescence (HELENA)Cross-Sectional Study.
Adolescents aged 12·5–17·5 years (n 1804).
Milk and cheese were the main sources of Ca (23 and 19 % contribution to overall Ca intake, respectively). Fish products were the main VitD source (30 % contribution to overall VitD intake). Ca intake was positively associated with maternal education (β=56·41; 95 % CI 1·98, 110·82) and negatively associated with TV viewing in boys (β=–0·43; 95 % CI −0·79, −0·07); however, the significance of these associations disappeared when adjusting for diet quality. In girls, Ca intake was positively associated with mother’s (β=73·08; 95 % CI 34·41, 111·74) and father’s education (β=43·29; 95 % CI 5·44, 81·14) and FAS (β=37·45; 95 % CI 2·25, 72·65). This association between Ca intake and mother’s education remained significant after further adjustment for diet quality (β=41·66; 95 % CI 0·94, 82·38). Girls with high-educated mothers had higher Ca intake.
Low-educated families with poor diet quality may be targeted when strategizing health promotion programmes to enhance dietary Ca.
As a whole neurogenetic diseases are a common group of neurological disorders. However, the recognition and molecular diagnosis of these disorders is not always straightforward. Besides, there is a paucity of information regarding the diagnostic yield that specialized neurogenetic clinics could obtain. We performed a prospective, observational, analytical study of the patients seen in a neurogenetic clinic at a tertiary medical centre to assess the diagnostic yield of a comprehensive diagnostic evaluation that included a personalized clinical assessment along with traditional and next-generation sequencing diagnostic tests. We included a cohort of 387 patients from May 2008 to June 2014. For sub-group analysis we selected a sample of patients whose main complaint was the presence of progressive ataxia, to whom we applied a systematic molecular diagnostic algorithm. Overall, a diagnostic mutation was identified in 27·4% of our cohort. However, if we only considered those patients where a molecular test could be performed, the success rate rises to 45%. We obtained diagnostic yields of 23·5 and 57·5% in the global group of ataxic patients and in the subset of ataxic patients with a positive family history, respectively. Thus, about a third of patients evaluated in a neurogenetic clinic could be successfully diagnosed.
The Balearic Shearwater Puffinus mauretanicus is considered one of the most threatened seabirds in the world, with the breeding population thought to be in the range of 2,000–3,200 breeding pairs, from which global population has been inferred as 10,000 to 15,000 birds. To test whether the actual population of Balearic Shearwaters is larger than presently thought, we analysed the data from four land-based census campaigns of Balearic Shearwater post-breeding migration through the Strait of Gibraltar (mid-May to mid-July 2007–2010). The raw results of the counts, covering from 37% to 67% of the daylight time throughout the migratory period, all revealed figures in excess of 12,000 birds, and went up to almost 18,000 in two years. Generalised Additive Models were used to estimate the numbers of birds passing during the time periods in which counts were not undertaken (count gaps), and their associated error. The addition of both counted and estimated birds reveals figures of between 23,780 and 26,535 Balearic Shearwaters migrating along the north coast of the Strait of Gibraltar in each of the four years of our study. The effects of several sources of bias suggest a slight potential underestimation in our results. These figures reveal the urgent need to reformulate the population viability analysis for the species, and then if necessary reconsider its conservation status.
Changes in phenotypic traits, such as mollusc shells, are indicative of variations in selective pressure along environmental gradients. Recently, increased sea surface temperature (SST) and ocean acidification (OA) due to increased levels of carbon dioxide in the seawater have been described as selective agents that may affect the biological processes underlying shell formation in calcifying marine organisms. The benthic snail Concholepas concholepas (Muricidae) is widely distributed along the Chilean coast, and so is naturally exposed to a strong physical–chemical latitudinal gradient. In this study, based on elliptical Fourier analysis, we assess changes in shell morphology (outlines analysis) in juvenile C. concholepas collected at northern (23°S), central (33°S) and southern (39°S) locations off the Chilean coast. Shell morphology of individuals collected in northern and central regions correspond to extreme morphotypes, which is in agreement with both the observed regional differences in the shell apex outlines, the high reclassification success of individuals (discriminant function analysis) collected in these regions, and the scaling relationship in shell weight variability among regions. However, these extreme morphotypes showed similar patterns of mineralization of calcium carbonate forms (calcite and aragonite). Geographical variability in shell shape of C. concholepas described by discriminant functions was partially explained by environmental variables (pCO2, SST). This suggests the influence of corrosive waters, such as upwelling and freshwaters penetrating into the coastal ocean, upon spatial variation in shell morphology. Changes in the proportion of calcium carbonate forms precipitated by C. concholepas across their shells and its susceptibility to corrosive coastal waters are discussed.
Understanding the response of biodiversity to land-use changes is an important challenge for ecologists. We assessed the effects of five landscape metrics (forest cover, number of patches, edge density, mean inter-patch isolation distance and matrix quality) and three patch metrics (patch size, shape and isolation) on the number of species and patch occupancy of medium- and large-sized terrestrial mammals in the fragmented Lacandona rain forest, Mexico. We sampled mammal assemblages in 24 forest patches and four control areas within a continuous forest. The landscape metrics were measured within a 100-ha buffer, and within a 500-ha buffer from the centre of each sampling site. A total of 21 species from 13 families was recorded. The number of species increased with shape complexity and patch size at the patch scale, and with matrix quality within 100-ha landscapes. When considering 500-ha landscapes, only the number of patches (i.e. forest fragmentation level) tended to have a negative influence at the community level. Different landscape and patch metrics predicted the occurrence of each species within the sites. Our results indicate that there is a gradient of tolerance to forest cover change, from highly sensitive species to those tolerant of, or even benefited by, forest-cover change.
In this paper, an experimental study aimed at achieving better control of the deposition patterns of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) is presented. CNTs were grown on a long of reactor by the catalytic chemical vapor deposition (CVD) of a benzene/ferrocene solution at 1073 K. The deposition patterns on the substrate were controlled for process times and carrier gas flow rates. In order to investigate the reaction mechanism and production rate for the growth of CNTs in catalyst CVD, computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model was developed in this study. Then the computational model was integrated with the dynamic model to optimize the process parameters formulating a correlation between turbulence, deposition rate for the growth of carbon nanotubes and parameters as process time and carrier gas flow rate. Scanning electron microscopes (SEM) are used to characterize carbon nanotubes products.
We evaluated the effect of glycerol on the perinuclear theca (PT) of boar sperm. Samples from six ejaculates obtained from three different boars were incubated in the detergent Brij 36-T. Spermatozoa were treated with a glycerol concentration of either 2 or 4%, and incubated for 10 or 30 min; two other samples were treated with protease inhibitors (PI; leupeptin or an inhibitor commercial cocktail), mixed with 4% glycerol, and incubated for 30 min. A third glycerol-free group was used as the control. The samples were processed for electron microscopy evaluation. The PT remained intact in 78% of the control samples while, after addition of glycerol for 30 min, the proportion of spermatozoa with disrupted or absent PT increased (P < 0.05). PT was preserved in PI samples, but PT changes increased (P < 0.05). Differences due to treatment with glycerol (2 or 4%) at 10 or 30 min were not observed. These results show, to our knowledge for the first time, the adverse effect of glycerol on the integrity of the PT.
The CuInS2 thin film formation from a Cu/In precursor stack in the presence of elemental sulfur using a rapid thermal process under Cu-poor conditions has been studied. The process has been aborted at appropriate stages and the corresponding samples were investigated by XRD, Raman spectroscopy and SEM. The sulfurisation starts from elemental Cu and CuIn2. Elemental In and the binary phases Cu11In9 and Cu7In3 appear as intermediate phases. At the end of the sulfurisation the sample contains the ternary phases CuInS2 and CuIn5S8. CuS and β-In2S3 are detected by Raman spectroscopy at the sample surface and at distinct stages of the sulfurisation only. A difference in CuInS2 crystal quality is observed between the surface and the bottom of the samples.
This contribution compares the growth of Cu(Ga,In)S2 based thin film solar cell absorbers in rapid thermal systems using sulfur vapor Sx or H2S/Ar as reactive atmosphere, focusing on Ga-related influences on film growth and phase formation. Cu-In alloying in the precursor is kinetically hindered by the presence of Cu-Ga phases. In sulfur vapor Ga-containing samples sulfurize via an intermediate CuIn2S8 phase, thereby delaying the full sulfurization and recrystallization of the layer. In contrast, in H2S/Ar fast Ga-In interdiffusion and no intermediate chalcogenide phases are observed. The inhomogeneous Ga depth distribution usually reported for sequentially prepared Cu(In,Ga)S2 films can be assigned to the segregation of CuGaS2 prior to CuInS2.