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In this paper, we identify the technology shock at business cycle frequencies to improve the performance of structural vector autoregression models in small samples. To this end, we propose a new identification method based on the spectral decomposition of the variance, which targets the contributions of the shock in theoretical models. Results from a Monte-Carlo assessment show that the proposed method can deliver a precise estimate of the response of hours in small samples. We illustrate the application of our methodology using US data and a standard Real Business Cycle model. We find a positive response of hours in the short run following a non-significant, near-zero impact. This result is robust to a large set of credible parameterizations of the theoretical model.
A weed survey was conducted on 134 Palmer amaranth (Amaranthus palmeri S. Watson) populations from Mississippi and Arkansas in 2017 to investigate the spread of resistance to protoporphyrinogen oxidase (PPO) inhibitors using fomesafen as a proxy. Fomesafen resistance was found in 42% of the A. palmeri populations. To investigate the resistance basis of different PPO inhibitors, we further characterized 10 representative populations by in planta bioassay in a controlled environment and molecular characterizations (DNA sequencing and TaqMan® gene expression assay). A total of 160 plants were sprayed with a labeled field rate (1X) of fomesafen or salfufenacil and screened for the presence of three known resistance-endowing mutations in the mitochondrial PPX2 gene (ΔGly-210, Arg-128-Gly, Gly-399-Ala). To compare the potencies of fomesafen and saflufenacil, dose–response studies were conducted on two highly resistant and one sensitive populations. The interaction of the two herbicides with the target protein harboring known PPX2 mutations was also analyzed. Our results showed that: (1) 90% of the fomesafen- or saflufenacil-resistant plants have at least one of the three known PPX2 mutations, with ΔGly-210 being the most prevalent; (2) saflufenacil is more potent than fomesafen, with five to nine times lower resistance/susceptible (R/S) ratios; (3) fomesafen selects for more diverse mutations, and computational inhibitor/target modeling of fomesafen suggest a weaker binding affinity in addition to a smaller interaction volume and volume overlap with the substrate protoporphyrinogen IX than saflufenacil. As a result, saflufenacil shows reduced sensitivity to PPX2 target-site mutations. Results from current study can help pave the way for designing weed management strategies to delay resistance development and maintain the efficacy of PPO inhibitors.
Loyalty cards programs have been used by retailers to increase customer retention. Loyality cards provide means to identify a particular customer and to collect customer-specific data, thus enabling individualized marketing; however, operating a loyalty program is complicated for retailers since they require to manage balances, collections, and transfers of customers. This is exactly the same problem the retailers were facing before credit cards were readily available. A new problem is that customers now have too many cards, customers may forget, or even deliberately decide to carry only a selection of their cards. This paper proposes a loyalty program based on a blockchain that does not require a physical card for identifying customers as it associates customers to their phone numbers, since nowadays people always carry their phone. In this perspective, companies can reduce overhead costs associated to managing the loyalty program. This paper reviews the technology required and describes the implementation of a loyalty program based on blockchains. Finally, it also enumerates the reasons for choosing the blockchain technology for this application.
Describe and validate the CHROME (CHemical Restraints avOidance MEthodology) criteria.
Observational prospective longitudinal study.
Single nursing home in Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, Spain.
288 residents; mean age: 81.6 (SD 10.6). 77.4% had dementia.
Multicomponent training and consultancy program to eliminate physical and chemical restraints and promote overall quality care. Clinicians were trained in stringent diagnostic criteria of neuropsychiatric syndromes and adequate psychotropic prescription.
Psychotropic prescription (primary study target), neuropsychiatric syndromes, physical restraints, falls, and emergency room visits were semi-annually collected from December 2015 to December 2017. Results are presented for all residents and for those who had dementia and participated in the five study waves (completer analysis, n=107).
For the study completers, atypical neuroleptic prescription dropped from 42.7% to 18.7%, long half-life benzodiazepines dropped from 25.2% to 6.5%, and hypnotic medications from 47.7% to 12.1% (p<0.0005). Any kind of fall evolved from 67.3 to 32.7 (number of falls by 100 residents per year). Physicians’ diagnostic confidence increased, while the frequency of diagnoses of neuropsychiatric syndromes decreased (p<0.0005).
Implementing the CHROME criteria reduced the prescription of the most dangerous medications in institutionalized people with dementia. Two independent audits found no physical or chemical restraint and confirmed prescription quality of psychotropic drugs. Adequate diagnosis and independent audits appear to be the keys to help and motivate professionals to optimize and reduce the use of psychotropic medication. The CHROME criteria unify, in a single compendium, neuropsychiatric diagnostic criteria, prescription guidelines, independent audit methodology, and minimum legal standards. These criteria can be easily adapted to other countries.
Tubular pottery comprises certain peculiar artifacts that were produced by late Holocene complex hunter-gatherer societies in southeastern South America for unknown purposes. Some authors have related them to mortuary behaviour which has also been suggested by historical sources, while others have considered domestic use. In this paper, the technical, compositional and functional properties of these artifacts are explored in order to contrast both hypotheses, given an example of how technical analysis allows the identification of special pottery within archeological contexts. This analysis includes a study of the fabrics involved using low and high magnification, thin sections, Scanning Electron Microscopy, Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy, Mössbauer Spectroscopy, Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy and fatty acid profiles. The results show that these tubular artifacts are not fit structurally for utilitarian purposes and show no evidence of domestic use. Based on these results and on historical data, it can be postulated that they were used as part of mortuary rituals, thus becoming part of the select global group of pottery manufactured exclusively for mortuary purposes.
The problem of hybrid force and motion control over unknown rigid surfaces when only joint position measurements are available is considered. To overcome this problem, an extended state high-gain observer is designed to simultaneously estimate the contact force and joint velocities. These estimated signals are in turn employed to design a local estimator of the unknown surface gradient. This gradient is utilized to decompose the task space into two orthogonal subspaces: one for force tracking and the other one for motion control. A simple position Proportional Integral Derivative (PID) and force Proportional Integral (PI) controllers are proposed to track the desired signals. Finally, a mathematical analysis of the closed-loop dynamics is carried out, guaranteeing uniform ultimate boundedness of the position and force tracking errors and of the surface gradient estimation error. A numerical simulation is employed to validate the approach in an ideal scenario, while experiments are carried out to test the proposed strategy when uncertainties and unmodeled dynamics are present.
To analyze the impact of the International Nosocomial Infection Control Consortium (INICC) Multidimensional Approach (IMA) and the INICC Surveillance Online System (ISOS) on central line-associated bloodstream infection (CLABSI) rates in 14 intensive care units (ICUs) in Argentina from January 2014 to April 2017.
This prospective, pre–post surveillance study of 3,940 ICU patients was conducted in 11 hospitals in 5 cities in Argentina. During our baseline evaluation, we performed outcome and process surveillance of CLABSI applying Centers for Disease Control and Prevention/National Health Safety Network (CDC/NHSN) definitions. During the intervention, we implemented the IMA through ISOS: (1) a bundle of infection prevention practice interventions, (2) education, (3) outcome surveillance, (4) process surveillance, (5) feedback on CLABSI rates and consequences, and (6) performance feedback of process surveillance. Bivariate and multivariate regression analyses were performed using a logistic regression model to estimate the effect of the intervention on the CLABSI rate.
During the baseline period, 5,118 CL days and 49 CLABSIs were recorded, for a rate of 9.6 CLABSIs per 1,000 central-line (CL) days. During the intervention, 15,659 CL days and 68 CLABSIs were recorded, for a rate of 4.1 CLABSIs per 1,000 CL days. The CLABSI rate was reduced by 57% (incidence density rate: 0.43; 95% confidence interval, 0.34–0.6; P<.001).
Implementing IMA through ISOS was associated with a significant reduction in the CLABSI rate in ICUs in Argentina.
The purpose of this study is to assess the discourse of people with disabilities regarding their perception of discrimination and stigma. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with ten adults with physical disabilities, ten with hearing impairments and seven with visual impairments. The agreement between the coders showed an excellent reliability for all three groups, with kappa coefficients between .82 and .96. Differences were assessed between the three groups regarding the types of discrimination they experienced and their most frequent emotional responses. People with physical disabilities mainly reported being stared at, undervalued, and subtly discriminated at work, whereas people with hearing impairments mainly reported encountering barriers in leisure activities, and people with visual impairments spoke of a lack of equal opportunities, mockery and/or bullying, and overprotection. Regarding their emotional reactions, people with physical disabilities mainly reported feeling anxious and depressed, whereas people with hearing impairments reported feeling helpless, and people with visual impairments reported feeling anger and self-pity. Findings are relevant to guide future research and interventions on the stigma of disability.
The facilitating role of the facial expression of surprise in the discrimination of the facial expression of fear was analyzed. The sample consisted of 202 subjects that undertook a forced-choice test in which they had to decide as quickly as possible whether the facial expression displayed on-screen was one of fear, anger or happiness. Variations were made to the prime expression (neutral expression, or one of surprise); the target expression (facial expression of fear, anger or happiness), and the prime duration (50 ms, 150 ms or 250 ms). The results revealed shorter reaction times in the response to the expression of fear when the prime expression was one of surprise, with a prime duration of 50 ms (p = .009) and 150 ms (p = .001), compared to when the prime expression was a neutral one. By contrast, the reaction times were longer in the discrimination of an expression of fear when the prime expression was one of surprise with a prime duration of 250 ms (p < .0001), compared to when the prime expression was a neutral one. This pattern of results was obtained solely in the discrimination of the expression of fear. The discussion focuses on these findings and the possible functional continuity between surprise and fear.
Here we present a new site in the Sierra de Atapuerca (Burgos, Spain): Galería de las Estatuas (GE), which provides new information about Mousterian occupations in the Iberian Plateau. The GE was an ancient entrance to the cave system, which is currently closed and sealed by a stalagmitic crust, below which a detritic sedimentary sequence of more than 2 m is found. This has been divided into five litostratigraphic units with a rich assemblage of faunal and lithic remains of clear Mousterian affinity. Radiocarbon dates provide minimum ages and suggest occupations older than 45 14C ka BP. The palynological analysis detected a landscape change to increased tree coverage, which suggests that the sequence recorded a warming episode. The macromammal assemblage is composed of both ungulates (mainly red deer and equids) and carnivores. Taphonomic analysis reveals both anthropic, and to a lesser extent, carnivore activities. The GE was occupied by Neanderthals and also sporadically by carnivores. This new site broadens the information available regarding different human occupations at the Sierra de Atapuerca, which emphasizes the importance of this site-complex for understanding human evolution in Western Europe.
To determine the effects of lipid-based nutrient supplements (LNS) on children’s Hb, linear growth and development, compared with supplementation with micronutrient powder (MNP).
The study was a two-arm parallel-group randomized controlled trial, where participants received either LNS or MNP for daily consumption during 6 months. Supplements were delivered by staff at government-run health centres. Hb, anthropometric, motor development, language development and problem-solving indicators were measured by trained research assistants when children were 12 months of age.
The study was conducted in five rural districts in the Province of Ambo in the Department of Huánuco, Peru.
We enrolled 6-month-old children (n 422) at nineteen health centres.
Children who received LNS had a higher mean Hb concentration and lower odds of anaemia than those who received MNP. No significant differences in height-for-age, weight-for-height or weight-for-age Z-score, or stunting and underweight prevalence, were observed. Provision of LNS was associated with a higher pre-verbal language (gestures) score, but such effect lost significance after adjustment for covariates. Children in the LNS group had higher problem-solving task scores and increased odds of achieving this cognitive task than children in the MNP group. No significant differences were observed on receptive language or gross motor development.
LNS between 6 and 12 months of age increased Hb concentration, reduced anaemia and improved cognitive development in children, but showed no effects on anthropometric indicators, motor or language development.
Objectives: The methodological quality of an economic evaluation performed alongside a clinical trial can be underestimated if the paper does not report key methodological features. This study discusses methodological assessment issues on the example of a systematic review on cost-effectiveness of physiotherapy for knee osteoarthritis.
Methods: Six economic evaluation studies included in the systematic review and related clinical trials were assessed using the 10-question check-list by Drummond and the Physiotherapy Evidence Database (PEDro) scale.
Results: All economic evaluations were performed alongside a clinical trial but the studied interventions were too heterogeneous to be synthesized. Methodological quality of the economic evaluations reported in the papers was not free of drawbacks, and in some cases, it improved when information from the related clinical trial was taken into account.
Conclusions: Economic evaluation papers dedicate little space to methodological features of related clinical trials; therefore, the methodological quality can be underestimated if evaluated separately from the trials. Future economic evaluations should follow more strictly the recommendations about methodology and the authors should pay special attention to the quality of reporting.
Greco wants to understand the difference between knowledge generation and transmission. Doing so, he argues, will show that there are substantively different norms governing the two types of knowledge acquisition. I offer an alternative way of cashing out the difference between transmission and generation in non-normative terms.
Lenticular galaxies (S0s) are more likely to host anti-truncated (Type III) stellar discs than galaxies of later Hubble types. Previous work on Type-III S0s at z = 0 revealed that the characteristic parameters of the breaks obey tight scaling relations (Borlaff et al. 2014). These relation are similar in both S0’s and spirals, in optical and NIR, and for barred and non-barred galaxies (Eliche-Moral et al. 2015). We have analysed 3DHST images (Brammer et al. 2012) of S0 galaxies from the SHARDS survey (Pérez-González et al. 2013) in order to investigate if E/S0 and S0 galaxies with anti-truncated stellar profiles up to z ~ 0.6 follow similar scaling relations compared to the local sample. We find that the characteristic photometric parameters of Type-III S0s at 0.4 < z < 0.6 obey analogous scaling relations to those observed in their local counterparts, lying on top of the extrapolations of the local trends towards brighter magnitudes in several photometric diagrams and sharing similar trends and values in the hi – RbrkIII, ho – RbrkIII and hi – ho diagrams. We have measured the offsets in magnitudes between two subsets of the z ~ 0.5 and z = 0 samples with similar masses (log 10M/M⊙ ~ 10.7). The median offsets are: ΔμbrkIII = − 2.23+0.46−0.62, Δμ0, i = − 2.61+0.31−0.26 and Δμ0, o = − 2.31+0.57−0.78 mag arcsec-2. We find that PSF corrections in our images do not significantly affect the scaling relations obtained in our 0.2 < z < 0.6 sample. In conclusion, the existence of similar scaling relations in Type-III S0 discs since z ~ 0.6 implies that the structures of the inner and outer discs in anti-truncated S0s have been similarly linked in the last ~ 6 Gyr, posing strong constraints to the processes proposed to explain their formation.
We examined the representativeness of the nonfederal hospital emergency department (ED) visit data in the National Syndromic Surveillance Program (NSSP).
We used the 2012 American Hospital Association Annual Survey Database, other databases, and information from state and local health departments participating in the NSSP about which hospitals submitted data to the NSSP in October 2014. We compared ED visits for hospitals submitting data with all ED visits in all 50 states and Washington, DC.
Approximately 60.4 million of 134.6 million ED visits nationwide (~45%) were reported to have been submitted to the NSSP. ED visits in 5 of 10 regions and the majority of the states were substantially underrepresented in the NSSP. The NSSP ED visits were similar to national ED visits in terms of many of the characteristics of hospitals and their service areas. However, visits in hospitals with the fewest annual ED visits, in rural trauma centers, and in hospitals serving populations with high percentages of Hispanics and Asians were underrepresented.
NSSP nonfederal hospital ED visit data were representative for many hospital characteristics and in some geographic areas but were not very representative nationally and in many locations. Representativeness could be improved by increasing participation in more states and among specific types of hospitals. (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2016;10:562–569)
The present study examines the development of grammatical gender assignment, agreement, and noun-adjective word order in child heritage Spanish among thirty-two Spanish–English bilingual children born and raised in the United States. A picture-naming task revealed significant overextension of the masculine form and high levels of ungrammatical word order strings. There were no significant differences by age regarding gender concord or noun-adjective word order. We argue that the differences found can be accounted for in terms of a re-assembly of gender features leading to both morphological and syntactic variability. This approach allows for subsequent morphosyntactic shifts during early childhood depending on patterns of language use, and conceptualizes heritage language variation along the lines of current linguistic theorizing regarding the role of innate linguistic principles and language experience in language development.
The occurrence of the alien species Anadara kagoshimensis is reported for the first time in the Ría de Arousa (Galicia, NW Spain) during 2013. Living specimens of this species have been recognized by morphological analysis. The cytochrome c oxidase subunit I gene has been partially sequenced and Maximum likelihood and Bayesian analyses carried out to confirm its identification. This new record reaffirms the presence of A. kagoshimensis, previously reported as Anadara inaequivalvis, along the Atlantic European coast extending the known distribution range in Spanish waters to the south.
In this work, the viscoelastic behavior of a polymeric step-index optical fiber is studied, and the loss factors η of their complex moduli are calculated. The loss factors of the Young and shear moduli were determined from the measurement of the damping ratio γ of a simple pendulum and a torsion pendulum respectively, using the Kelvin-Voigt model of the viscoelastic theory. The shear and Young complex moduli can be used to study the optic-viscoelastic behavior of a polymeric step-index optical fiber.
Acetyl-coenzyme A carboxylase (ACCase)–resistant Italian ryegrass is one of the most difficult-to-control weeds in United States wheat-production systems. Seed was collected from a suspected ACCase-resistant Italian ryegrass population in a winter wheat field with a history of ACCase-inhibitor herbicide use. This study investigated cross-resistance patterns in this Italian ryegrass population. Resistance was identified to the commercial dose of the ACCase herbicides pinoxaden, clethodim, sethoxydim, and clodinafop. Partial chloroplastic ACCase sequences revealed aspartate-to-glycine or isoleucine-to-asparagine substitutions at positions 2078 or 2041 in individuals of the resistant population. This is the first report, to our knowledge, of Asp-2078-Gly and Ile-2041-Asn substitutions in ACCase-resistant Italian ryegrass in the United States. Associating the occurrence of resistance alleles with resistance to specific active ingredients provides a better understanding of ACCase cross-resistance in Italian ryegrass and possibly options for its control.