To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure email@example.com
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
Tibraca limbativentris (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) is a major pest in Neotropical rice agroecosystems. In autumn–winter, this pest takes refuge in rice stubble and in native vegetation, which allows it to re-colonize the crop during the rice growing season. However, it is still unknown whether this vegetation is a pest sink or is actually a natural trap that contributes to pest population biocontrol. Here we present information on the insect's alternative host plants, a preliminary outline of the relationship between plant phylogeny and insect abundance, and the impact that winter natural enemies have in pest population. Also, we include a proposed methodology for pest density analysis in winter hosts. Our results show significant differences in the abundance/density that T. limbativentris reaches in the 12 host plant species present in our study areas, with a plant-use pattern significantly related to the phylogenetic clade of Poales. Stink bug winter populations mainly comprised diapause adults, and 40% of insect digestive tracts had content. Survival of T. limbativentris was 56.92% in winter hosts. About mortality, 10% was due to undetermined causes and 33.08% due to entomopathogenic fungi, showing a natural regulation of the pest population. Our results suggest that native vegetation impacts winter survival of T. limbativentris. Although these plants offer shelter, they offer a greater contribution to Integrated Pest Management: the natural regulation of winter pest populations through entomopathogenic attack. Further studies on T. limbativentris population dynamics and the preservation of native areas near rice fields will be required for the development of best control practices.
Describe and validate the CHROME (CHemical Restraints avOidance MEthodology) criteria.
Observational prospective longitudinal study.
Single nursing home in Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, Spain.
288 residents; mean age: 81.6 (SD 10.6). 77.4% had dementia.
Multicomponent training and consultancy program to eliminate physical and chemical restraints and promote overall quality care. Clinicians were trained in stringent diagnostic criteria of neuropsychiatric syndromes and adequate psychotropic prescription.
Psychotropic prescription (primary study target), neuropsychiatric syndromes, physical restraints, falls, and emergency room visits were semi-annually collected from December 2015 to December 2017. Results are presented for all residents and for those who had dementia and participated in the five study waves (completer analysis, n=107).
For the study completers, atypical neuroleptic prescription dropped from 42.7% to 18.7%, long half-life benzodiazepines dropped from 25.2% to 6.5%, and hypnotic medications from 47.7% to 12.1% (p<0.0005). Any kind of fall evolved from 67.3 to 32.7 (number of falls by 100 residents per year). Physicians’ diagnostic confidence increased, while the frequency of diagnoses of neuropsychiatric syndromes decreased (p<0.0005).
Implementing the CHROME criteria reduced the prescription of the most dangerous medications in institutionalized people with dementia. Two independent audits found no physical or chemical restraint and confirmed prescription quality of psychotropic drugs. Adequate diagnosis and independent audits appear to be the keys to help and motivate professionals to optimize and reduce the use of psychotropic medication. The CHROME criteria unify, in a single compendium, neuropsychiatric diagnostic criteria, prescription guidelines, independent audit methodology, and minimum legal standards. These criteria can be easily adapted to other countries.
Earthquakes may lead to a reaction to severe stress and adjustment disorders (RSSAD). On September 7, 19, and 23, 2017, Mexico was struck by many severe earthquakes. The aim of this study was to examine whether there was an increase in the number of consultations and RSSAD in a psychiatric emergency department in Mexico City after these earthquakes.
We studied retrospectively the diagnosis and triage assessment from a Mexican psychiatric emergency department database from September 1 to November 30, 2017, and analyzed RSSAD and the number of consultations after the earthquakes.
A total of 1,811 psychiatric emergency consultations were registered from the period of study. A total of 141 consultations represented RSSAD. There was a significant increase of RSSAD after the September 23, 2017, earthquake. The triage assessment revealed that the urgency of the consultations was higher immediately after the earthquakes.
Natural disasters, such as earthquakes, may trigger diverse RSSAD leading to increased emergency consultations, especially when those disasters are repetitive. Mental health professionals should be adequately trained and sensitized for possible acute disaster victims. (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2019;13:686–690).
This study evaluated the effectiveness of low doses of benznidazole (BNZ) on continuous administration (BNZc), combined with allopurinol (ALO), in C57BL/6J and C3H/HeN mice infected with Trypanosoma cruzi Nicaragua strain and T. cruzi Sylvio-X10/4 clone. TcN-C57BL/6J was also treated with intermittent doses of BNZ (BNZit). The drug therapy started 3 months post infection (pi) in the chronic phase of mice with heart disease progression, followed-up at 6 months pi. TcN-C57BL/6J treated with BNZc was also monitored up to 12 months pi by serology and electrocardiogram. These mice showed severe electrical abnormalities, which were not observed after BNZc or BNZit. ALO only showed positive interaction with the lowest dose of BNZ. A clear parasitic effect, with significant reductions in antibody titres and parasitic loads, was achieved in all models with low doses of BNZ, and a 25% reduction of the conventional dose showed more efficacy to inhibit the development of the pathology. However, BNZ 75 showed partial efficacy in the TcSylvio-X10/4-C3H/HeN model. In our experimental designs, C57BL/6J allowed to clearly define a chronic phase, and through reproducible efficacy indicators, it can be considered a good preclinical model.
Newly discovered archaeological sites in the Uribe Kosta region of northern Spain are illuminating the establishment of late prehistoric coastal farming settlements and specialised tool-production activities.
To study zooplankton–phytoplankton relationships in the diatom-dominated plankton communities of the northern Adriatic we performed feeding experiments with diatoms and zoea I larvae of the brachyuran Xantho poressa. We found that zoea I of X. poressa feed on diatoms of different forms (centric, pennate, colony forming, single celled, with or without setae) and size classes. In a laboratory setup, we presented the zoeas with a mix of diatom species similar to communities observed during blooms regularly found in the northern Adriatic. We report that the grazing activity resulted in a decrease of the relative abundance of the toxic diatom Pseudo-nitzschia calliantha. For the colonial, bloom-forming diatom Skeletonema marinoi our results show a chain length reduction in the presence of zoea I. Of particular interest is the observation that the presence of larvae also resulted in an increased growth rate and abundance of S. marinoi, which resembles bloom induction by grazer presence.
Cognitive deficits are a core feature of early stages in schizophrenia. However, the extent to which antipsychotic (AP) have a deleterious effect on cognitive performance remains under debate. We aim to investigate whether anticholinergic loadings and dose of AP drugs in first episode of psychosis (FEP) in advanced phase of remission are associated with cognitive impairment and the differences between premorbid intellectual quotient (IQ) subgroups.
Two hundred and sixty-six patients participated. The primary outcomes were cognitive dimensions, dopaminergic/anticholinergic load of AP [in chlorpromazine equivalents (Eq-CPZ) and the Anticholinergic Risk Scale (ARS), respectively].
Impairments in processing speed, verbal memory and global cognition were significantly associated with high Eq-CPZ and verbal impairment with high ARS score. Moreover, this effect was higher in the low IQ subgroup.
Clinicians should be aware of the potential cognitive impairment associated with AP in advanced remission FEP, particularly in lower premorbid IQ patients.
In this research, zinc chloride has been used as precursor and zinc oxide nanostructures have been synthesized by Sol-Gel process, using deionized water and 2-propanol as solvents in order to evaluate their influence on the final materials and their properties. Thin films of synthesized samples were deposited on glass substrates by the dipping method. The structure and morphology of crystals were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) respectively. The electrical response of the samples to CO was investigated at different operating temperatures and sensitivity curves are presented for samples synthesized in water and 2-propanol (IsOH) solvents. The SEM analysis revealed that ZnO thin films have yielded to different morphologies depending on the solvent, and material was found on the non-immersed side of the substrate attributable to migration during the dip-coating process. XRD analysis shows that the samples present the ZnO wurtzite structure. In EDS analysis it was found the presence of chlorine on the sample, opening the possibility the presence of zinc oxychloride.
Blood parasites such as haemogregarines and haemosporidians have been identified in almost all groups of vertebrates and may cause serious damages to their hosts. However, very little is known about biodiversity of these parasites and their effects on some groups of reptiles such as terrapins. Moreover, the information on virulence from blood parasites mixed infection is largely unknown in reptiles. With this aim, we investigated for the first time the prevalence and genetic diversity of blood parasites from one genus of haemoparasitic aplicomplexan (Hepatozoon) in two populations of Spanish terrapins (Mauremys leprosa), a semi-aquatic turtle from southwestern Europe with a vulnerable conservation status. We also examined the association between mixed blood parasite infection and indicators of health of terrapins (body condition, haematocrit values and immune response). Blood parasite infection with Hepatozoon spp was detected in 46·4% of 140 examined terrapins. The prevalence of blood parasites infection differed between populations. We found two different lineages of blood parasite, which have not been found in previous studies. Of the turtles with infection, 5·7% harboured mixed infection by the two lineages. There was no difference in body condition between uninfected, single-infected and mixed-infected turtles, but mixed-infected individuals had the lowest values of haematocrit, thus revealing the negative effects of blood parasite mixed infections. Immune response varied among terrapins with different infection status, where mixed infected individuals had higher immune response than uninfected or single-infected terrapins.
The fragmentation of jaguar Panthera onca populations as a result of habitat loss is considered to be one of the main challenges for the conservation of the species. Corridors have been proposed as a means of maintaining connectivity and the long-term viability of jaguar populations. The corridor that connects the jaguar conservation units of Calakmul and Laguna de Terminos in Mexico has been considered to be a link for the movement of individuals between these units but its functionality had yet to be verified. During 2012–2014 we divided the corridor into four sections, where we used camera traps to verify the corridor's functionality. We obtained 106 photographs of jaguars, proving the presence of jaguars (including resident jaguars and females) in three of the corridor sections. We did not record any individuals in more than one section of the corridor. The presence of several resident jaguars and females throughout the corridor suggests that portions of the corridor should be incorporated into the Calakmul and Laguna de Terminos jaguar conservation units. Nevertheless, to confirm that the corridor is fully functional it is necessary to obtain evidence of movement of jaguars among the various sections of the corridor. Our results suggest that the area should be included in regional conservation strategies.
In this work, the molecular interaction of the amino acid glycine and the mineral pyrite was performed to gain insight into the potential role of the mineral as a precursor of chemical complexity in the presence of ultraviolet (UV) radiation. Glycine samples were self-assembled on pyrite with and without exposure to UV radiation and subsequently characterized by scanning electron microscopy, infrared spectroscopy (with the second-derivative method), and AM1 and PM3 semi-empirical molecular computational simulations. In this work, our molecular modelling results suggest that pyrite acts as a template for self-assembly of glycine, and it is a potential catalyst for the glycine dimerization of relevance in interstellar space and ancient Earth conditions. A change in the structural complexity of glycine from the α to its γ polymorph when irradiated with UV radiation can be a condition for chemical evolution towards living forms.
The rigorous mathematical theory of the Navier–Stokes and Euler equations has been a focus of intense activity in recent years. This volume, the product of a workshop in Venice in 2013, consolidates, surveys and further advances the study of these canonical equations. It consists of a number of reviews and a selection of more traditional research articles on topics that include classical solutions to the 2D Euler equation, modal dependency for the 3D Navier–Stokes equation, zero viscosity Boussinesq equations, global regularity and finite-time singularities, well-posedness for the diffusive Burgers equations, and probabilistic aspects of the Navier–Stokes equation. The result is an accessible summary of a wide range of active research topics written by leaders in their field, together with some exciting new results. The book serves both as a helpful overview for graduate students new to the area and as a useful resource for more established researchers.