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The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) emerging infectious disease pandemic developed in Lombardy (northern Italy) during the last week of February 2020 with a progressive increase of patients presenting with serious clinical findings. Despite the efforts of the Central Italian Government, regional resources were rapidly at capacity. The solution was to plan the medical evacuation (MEDEVAC) of 119 critically ill patients (median age 61 years) to in-patient intensive care units in other Italian regions (77) and Germany (42). Once surviving patients were deemed suitable, the repatriation process concluded the assignment. The aim of this report is to underline the importance of a rapid organization and coordination process between different nodes of an effective national and international network during an emerging infectious disease outbreak and draw lessons learned from similar published reports.
To describe the health-care resources implemented during the Italian Formula 1 Grand Prix (F1GP) and to calculate the patient presentation rate (PPR) based on both real data and a prediction model.
Observational and descriptive study conducted from September 9 to September 11, 2022, during the Italian F1GP hosted in Monza (Italy). Maurer’s formula was applied to decide the number and type of health resources to be allocated. Patient presentation rate (PPR) was computed based on real data (PPR_real) and based on the Arbon formula (PPR_est).
Of 336,000 attendees, n = 263 requested medical assistance with most of them receiving treatment at the advanced medical post, and n = 16 needing transport to the hospital. The PPR_real was 51 for Friday, 78 for Saturday, 134 for Sunday, and 263 when considering the whole event as a single event. The PPR_est resulted in 85 for Friday, 93 for Saturday, 97 for Sunday, and 221 for the total population.
A careful organization of health-care resources could mitigate the impact of the Italian F1GP on local hospital facilities. The Arbon formula is an acceptable model to predict and estimate the number of patients requesting medical assistance, but further investigation needs to be conducted to implement the model and tailor it to broader categories of MGE.
We report the development, implementation, and results of a sustainable region-wide mass-casualty management prehospital training program implemented by the Regione Lombardia emergency medical services (EMS) agency AREU in Italy.
The educational program learning objectives are: (1) command and control, communications, and resource management; (2) mass casualty triage and the START triage protocol; (3) on-scene management; (4) Regione Lombardia and AREU Mass Casualty standard operating procedures; and (5) inter-agency communications and relations. For each course edition data on participants’ summative assessment, participants’ feedback and costs were collected.
Between June 26, 2013, and December 31, 2020, a total of 84 editions of the provider training event were delivered, training an overall 1329 prehospital providers; 1239 (93%) passed the summative assessment and were qualified as being operationally “ready.” Regarding participant feedback, the overall program was rated 4.4 ± 0.7 out of 5. The overall cost of running the provider program during the study period was €321 510 (circa US $382 000). The average cost per edition was €3828 and €242 per participant.
We have described a simple yet interactive simulation and blended-learning approach, which has yielded good pass rates, good participant satisfaction, and contained costs to systematically train emergency medical service personnel.
On January 25, 2018 a 5-car train derailed in Pioltello, 10 kilometers North-East of Milano City. A standardized post-hoc form was distributed to the hospitals involved in the management of the victims and allowed for an evaluation of the response to the incident.
The management of the incident by EMS (Emergency Medical System) was effective in terms of organization of the scene and distribution of the patients, although the time for the first severe patient to reach the closest appropriate hospital was very long (2 hours). This can be partially explained by the extrication time.
None of the alerted hospitals exceeded their capacity, as patients were distributed carefully among the hospitals. The overall outcome was quite satisfactory; no deaths were reported except for those on scene. Some responding hospitals reported that there was an over-activation based on the services ultimately needed. However this is common in MCIs, as an over-activation is preferable to an under-estimation. To address this concern, as more data are available, activation should be scaled down based on a plan established prior to it; this mechanism of scaling down seems to have failed in this event.
It is of note that the highest performing hospitals underwent recently to an educational program on MCI management.