The land crab Cardisoma guanhumi populations have been on the decline in Puerto Rico for the last three decades. While some studies suggest overexploitation and pesticides as causing the observed population declines, the effect of land-use/land-cover (LULC) changes have not been investigated. In this study we compared the abundance and size of Cardisoma guanhumi in five different LULC types (mangroves, grasslands, forest, urban and industrial), and investigated the relationship between differences in physical microhabitat conditions among the LULC types with crab abundance and size. Although no significant differences in size were found among the different LULC types, crabs were significantly less abundant in grassland sites. Surface soil temperature, depth to groundwater and air temperature were found to vary significantly among the LULC types. Of these, only surface soil temperatures had a significant negative relationship with crab abundance. It appears that high variation in soil temperature and a high groundwater table observed in the grasslands is most detrimental to crabs. Interestingly, during the time when land crab populations declined there was corresponding change of LULC from agriculture to grasslands. Cardisoma guanhumi is resilient to changes in LULC, however, changes that alter their access to groundwater and escape from high soil temperature reduce their habitat.