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The sperm epigenome is unique and of profound clinical importance based on its role in influencing embryogenesis. Potentially, the sperm epigenome can also be of importance to the clinician and toxicologist in assessing the effects of environmental exposures and lifestyle factors on spermatogenesis and sperm function, since the sperm epigenome contains historical markers of spermatogenesis, as well as programmatic factors of early embryonic development. Various industrial and agricultural chemicals are implicated in affecting male fertility, and recent studies have begun to evaluate the effects of these chemicals on the sperm epigenome. Additionally, lifestyle factors, such as obesity and advanced paternal age at the time of conception, are also being shown to affect the sperm epigenome. This chapter evaluates such factors and their effects on the sperm epigenome, highlighting the possible effects on both the father and potential progeny.
To consider historical aspects of nuts in relation to origin and distribution, attributed medicinal benefits, symbolism, legends and superstitions.
Review of historical aspects of nuts.
The varieties reviewed include almonds, walnuts, hazelnuts, pine nuts and pistachios.
Results and conclusions
Like other foods, nuts have a wide variety of cultural connections to the areas where they grow and to the people who live there or eat them. History, symbolism and legends reveal the ancient tradition of nuts and how they are related to the lives of our ancestors. Archaeological excavations in eastern Turkey have uncovered the existence of a non-migratory society whose economy centred on harvesting nuts. This shows that nuts have been a staple in the human diet since the beginnings of history. Moreover, since ancient times nuts have been used for their medicinal properties. They also play a role in many old legends and traditions.
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