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Harnessing the nonvolatility of magnetism and the power of electric control, magnetoelectric devices that control magnetism electrically promise to deliver next-generation electronics systems that can store and compute large amounts of information with minimal power consumption and ultrafast processing speed. We highlight progress in magnetoelectric memory and logic prototypes using the voltage-controlled magnetic anisotropy (VCMA) effect. First, important performance metrics of VCMA-based magnetoelectric random access memory (MeRAM) are benchmarked against embedded complementary metal oxide semiconductor and other emerging embedded nonvolatile memories. We then discuss scaling of MeRAM from the physics and materials perspectives of the VCMA effect, as well as the use of magnetoelectric logic devices and circuits to realize new computing paradigms with VCMA. Finally, challenges to realize the full potential of VCMA-based memory and logic are presented: VCMA coefficient of 1000 fJ/V-m for energy-efficient write with low errors and tunneling magnetoresistance of 1000% for high density and low noise margin readout. New approaches for deterministic switching based on VCMA are needed. We share perspectives to address these challenges using new materials and device operation schemes.
Previous studies on bilingual children found intact tonal development at the initial stages of interaction between Cantonese and English in successive bilingual children, whereas children exposed to both languages from birth have not been studied in this regard. We examined the production of Cantonese tones by five simultaneous bilingual children longitudinally at 2;0 and 2;6, and compared them with age-matched monolingual children using auditory analysis. Our results showed that some bilingual children had a delay at 2;0, compared to their monolingual peers. Some bilingual children also exhibited a ‘high–low’ template in their production, resembling the pitch pattern of English trochaic words. These findings suggest a possible early interaction of the Cantonese and English prosodic systems in which bilingual children adopted the English stress pattern in Cantonese production. The time-point along the trajectory of phonological development is important in modulating whether cross-linguistic transfer can be observed.
Types of melter feed materials affect glass production rates. This study focuses on the effects of alumina sources on melting behavior of high-alumina high-level-waste melter feeds containing different alumina sources, namely, gibbsite, boehmite, and corundum. The heat flow from the glass melt to the cold cap, a floating layer of the reacting feed, is partially hindered by a foam layer at the bottom of the cold cap. Volume expansion tests and thermoanalytical methods revealed that a slow-melting feed with corundum foamed extensively, whereas a fast-melting feed with boehmite had a low reaction heat and produced less stable foam. The foam thickness, a critical factor for the rate of melting, estimated using the relationship between the heat conductivity and foam porosity was in reasonable agreement with experimental observation.
The quantity and quality of collagen fibrils in the extracellular matrix (ECM) have a pivotal role in dictating biological processes. Several collagen-binding proteins (CBPs) are known to modulate collagen deposition and fibril diameter. However, limited studies exist on alterations in the fibril ultrastructure by CBPs. In this study, we elucidate how the collagen receptor, discoidin domain receptor 1 (DDR1) regulates the collagen content and ultrastructure in the adventitia of DDR1 knock-out (KO) mice. DDR1 KO mice exhibit increased collagen deposition as observed using Masson’s trichrome. Collagen ultrastructure was evaluated in situ using transmission electron microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and atomic force microscopy. Although the mean fibril diameter was not significantly different, DDR1 KO mice had a higher percentage of fibrils with larger diameter compared with their wild-type littermates. No significant differences were observed in the length of D-periods. In addition, collagen fibrils from DDR1 KO mice exhibited a small, but statistically significant, increase in the depth of the fibril D-periods. Consistent with these observations, a reduction in the depth of D-periods was observed in collagen fibrils reconstituted with recombinant DDR1-Fc. Our results elucidate how DDR1 modulates collagen fibril ultrastructure in vivo, which may have important consequences in the functional role(s) of the underlying ECM.
In this short write-up, I will concentrate on a few topics of interest. In the 1970s I found very extended HI disks in galaxies such as NGC 5055 and NGC 2841, out to 2 - 2.5 times the Holmberg radius. Since these galaxies are warped, a “tilted ring model” allows rotation curves to be derived, and evidence for dark matter to be found. The evaluation of the amount of dark matter is hampered by a disk-halo degeneracy, which can possibly be broken by observations of velocity dispersions in both the MgI region and the CaII region.
This paper presents an overview of the Parallel Encoding and Target Approximation (PENTA) model of speech prosody, in response to an extensive critique by Arvaniti & Ladd (2009). PENTA is a framework for conceptually and computationally linking communicative meanings to fine-grained prosodic details, based on an articulatory-functional view of speech. Target Approximation simulates the articulatory realisation of underlying pitch targets – the prosodic primitives in the framework. Parallel Encoding provides an operational scheme that enables simultaneous encoding of multiple communicative functions. We also outline how PENTA can be computationally tested with a set of software tools. With the help of one of the tools, we offer a PENTA-based hypothetical account of the Greek intonational patterns reported by Arvaniti & Ladd, showing how it is possible to predict the prosodic shapes of an utterance based on the lexical and postlexical meanings it conveys.
This study investigated the reciprocal relationship between parental caregiving and labour force participation to determine whether (1) caregiving related to subsequent employment; (2) employment related to subsequent caregiving; (3) caregiving and labour force participation had a reciprocal relationship across time; and (4) gender differences existed in these relationships. A cross-lagged panel design was applied with structural equation modeling. The study sample included adult children aged 51 or older with living parents or parents-in-law. No reciprocal relationship was found between caregiving and labour force participation, but gender differences were evident. Women caregivers in 2006 were less likely to be working in 2008, whereas employment status was not related to subsequent caregiving. In contrast, men working in 2008 were less likely to be caregiving in 2010, whereas caregiving was not related to subsequent employment status. Findings suggest that gender plays an important role in the relationship between caregiving and labour force participation.
We give a negative answer to the question raised by Mart Abel about whether his proposed definition of
groups in terms of quasi multiplication is indeed equivalent to the established ones in algebraic
The real-time electronic performance of a gallium nitride nanowire-based field effect transistor was investigated at five-minute intervals over thirty minutes of continuous irradiation by Xenon-124 relativistic heavy ions. An initial current surge that resulted in device improvement rather than device failure was observed. The current surge, and subsequent electronic behavior, was modeled using a combined thermionic emission-tunnelling approach, leading to information about barrier height, carrier concentrations, expected temperature behavior, and tunnelling.
Despite gradual understanding of the multidimensional health consequences
of betel-quid chewing, information on the effects of dependent use is
To investigate the 12-month prevalence patterns of betel-quid dependence
in six Asian populations and the impact of this dependence on oral
potentially malignant disorders (OPMD).
A multistage random sample of 8922 participants was recruited from
Taiwan, mainland China, Indonesia, Malaysia, Sri Lanka and Nepal.
Participants were evaluated for betel-quid dependency using DSM-IV and
ICD-10 criteria and assessed clinically for oral mucosal lesions.
The 12-month prevalence of dependence was 2.8-39.2% across the six Asian
samples, and 20.9-99.6% of those who chewed betel-quid were betel-quid
dependent. Men dominated the prevalence among the east Asian samples and
women dominated the prevalence in south-east Asian samples. ‘Time spent
chewing’ and ‘craving’ were the central dependence domains endorsed by
the Chinese and southern/south-east Asian samples respectively, whereas
the Nepalese samples endorsed ‘tolerance’ and ‘withdrawal’. Dependency
was linked to age, gender, schooling years, drinking, smoking,
tobacco-added betel-quid use and environmental accessibility of
betel-quid. Compared with non-users, those with betel-quid dependency had
higher pre-neoplastic risks (adjusted odds ratios 8.0-51.3) than people
with non-dependent betel-quid use (adjusted odds ratio 4.5-5.9) in the
six Asian populations.
By elucidating differences in domain-level symptoms of betel-quid
dependency and individual and environmental factors, this study draws
attention to the population-level psychiatric problems of betel-quid
chewing that undermine health consequences for OPMD in six Asian
A high molecular weight, photocurable inorganic-organic hybrid based on ladder-like poly(phenyl6-co-methacrylate4)silsesquioxanes (LPPMA64) was investigated as a flexible display substrate. Photocured free standing films with 40μm thickness showed high transparency (>95%), excellent thermal stability (Td >450°C), and low coefficient of thermal expansion (38ppm/K) without the use of reinforced glass fibers. Furthermore, these ladder-like structured materials did not require any thermal treatment processes due to the negligible amounts of uncondensed groups, thus simplifying manufacturing processing. These novel hybrid films present an alternative to organic plastics as flexible electronic device substrates due to their excellent optical and thermal properties.
To examine the prevalence of the C677T polymorphism of the methylene tetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene and the A2756G polymorphism of methionine synthase (MS), and their impact on antidepressant response.
We screened 224 subjects (52% female, mean age 39 ± 11 years) with SCID-diagnosed major depressive disorder (MDD), and obtained 194 genetic samples. 49 subjects (49% female, mean age 36 ± 11 years) participated in a 12-week open clinical trial of fluoxetine 20–60 mg/day. Association between clinical response and C677T and A2756G polymorphisms, folate, B12, and homocysteine was examined.
Prevalence of the C677T and A2756G polymorphisms was consistent with previous reports (C/C = 41%, C/T = 47%, T/T = 11%, A/A = 66%, A/G = 29%, G/G = 4%). In the fluoxetine-treated subsample (n = 49), intent-to-treat (ITT) response rates were 47% for C/C subjects and 46% for pooled C/T and T/T subjects (nonsignificant). ITT response rates were 38% for A/A subjects and 60% for A/G subjects (nonsignificant), with no subjects exhibiting the G/G homozygote. Mean baseline plasma B12 was significantly lower in A/G subjects compared to A/A, but folate and homocysteine levels were not affected by genetic status. Plasma folate was negatively associated with treatment response.
The C677T and A2756G polymorphisms did not significantly affect antidepressant response. These preliminary findings require replication in larger samples.
The film properties of two PECVD deposited dielectric copper barrier films
have been optimized to improve BEOL device reliability in terms of
electromigration. Two critical aspects that affect electromigration are the
dielectric barrier film hermeticity and adhesion to copper. We use a method
to quantify the barrier film hermeticity and have optimized the hermeticity
of the BLOκ™ low-κ dielectric barrier film to be similar to that of silicon
nitride. By using FT-IR we find that the film porosity has a much stronger
effect than the film stoichiometry on hermeticity. In addition, the
interfaces between Damascene Nitride™ with copper, as well as BLOκ with
copper have been engineered to improve the interfacial adhesion energy to
>10 J/m2 for both Damascene Nitride and BLOκ.