To save content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about saving content to .
To save content items to your Kindle, first ensure firstname.lastname@example.org
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about saving to your Kindle.
Note you can select to save to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be saved to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
OBJECTIVES/GOALS: Recent in vitro evidence suggests that diverse parasite protein families called RIFINs and STEVORs are displayed on the surface of infected red blood cells and may have a role in severe malaria, but they remain sparsely studied in natural infections. We measured the RNA expression of these antigens in Malian children with severe or mild malaria illness. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: We collected blood samples from Malian children aged six months to five years, including 14 with cerebral malaria, 10 with severe malarial anemia, and demographic-matched controls with mild, uncomplicated malaria. We extracted total RNA from each patient and used a custom capture array to selectively enrich Plasmodium falciparum parasite RNA. We then performed Illumina next-generation RNA sequencing and reconstructed parasite transcriptomes using reference-free de novo assembly. We identified RNA encoding RIFINs and STEVORs using an in-house classifier, then measured the diversity and abundance of gene expression for each infection. Expression diversity was defined as the number of unique variants transcribed. Expression abundance was calculated as transcripts per million (TPM). RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: Cerebral malaria cases, but not severe malarial anemia cases, had higher diversity and abundance of RIFIN expression compared to mild infections. Type A RIFINs predominated over Type B RIFINs, and the same two RIFINs were predominantly expressed in all disease phenotypes. We anticipate that predominantly expressed RIFINs share high sequence homology with variants previously shown to bind blood antigens or immune inhibitory receptors. STEVOR expression was also higher in cerebral malaria compared to mild malaria, but STEVOR transcripts were sparse overall. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE: Elevated RIFIN expression in cerebral malaria over mild malaria supports a role for these antigens in pathogenesis. Severe malarial anemia may progress through a different pathogenic mechanism. Predominantly expressed RIFIN variants may be promising targets for vaccines and therapeutics to protect children against cerebral malaria.
The role that vitamin D plays in pulmonary function remains uncertain. Epidemiological studies reported mixed findings for serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D)–pulmonary function association. We conducted the largest cross-sectional meta-analysis of the 25(OH)D–pulmonary function association to date, based on nine European ancestry (EA) cohorts (n 22 838) and five African ancestry (AA) cohorts (n 4290) in the Cohorts for Heart and Aging Research in Genomic Epidemiology Consortium. Data were analysed using linear models by cohort and ancestry. Effect modification by smoking status (current/former/never) was tested. Results were combined using fixed-effects meta-analysis. Mean serum 25(OH)D was 68 (sd 29) nmol/l for EA and 49 (sd 21) nmol/l for AA. For each 1 nmol/l higher 25(OH)D, forced expiratory volume in the 1st second (FEV1) was higher by 1·1 ml in EA (95 % CI 0·9, 1·3; P<0·0001) and 1·8 ml (95 % CI 1·1, 2·5; P<0·0001) in AA (Prace difference=0·06), and forced vital capacity (FVC) was higher by 1·3 ml in EA (95 % CI 1·0, 1·6; P<0·0001) and 1·5 ml (95 % CI 0·8, 2·3; P=0·0001) in AA (Prace difference=0·56). Among EA, the 25(OH)D–FVC association was stronger in smokers: per 1 nmol/l higher 25(OH)D, FVC was higher by 1·7 ml (95 % CI 1·1, 2·3) for current smokers and 1·7 ml (95 % CI 1·2, 2·1) for former smokers, compared with 0·8 ml (95 % CI 0·4, 1·2) for never smokers. In summary, the 25(OH)D associations with FEV1 and FVC were positive in both ancestries. In EA, a stronger association was observed for smokers compared with never smokers, which supports the importance of vitamin D in vulnerable populations.