To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure firstname.lastname@example.org
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
High-SiO2 rocks referred to as oceanic plagiogranites are common within the crustal sequences of ophiolites; however, their mode of petrogenesis is controversial with both late-stage fractional crystallization and partial melting models being proposed. Here, we present new whole-rock data from plagiogranitic dyke-like bodies and lenses from the lower and middle sections of the sheeted dyke complex of the Cretaceous Muslim Bagh Ophiolite, northwestern Pakistan. The plagiogranites have similar geochemical signatures that are inconsistent with them being the fractionation products of the mafic units of the Muslim Bagh Ophiolite. However, the plagiogranites all display very low TiO2 contents (<0.4 wt%), implying that they formed by partial melting of mafic rocks. Melt modelling of a crustal gabbro from the Muslim Bagh Ophiolite shows that the trace-element signature of the plagiogranites can be replicated by 5–10% melting of a crustal hornblende gabbro with amphibole as a residual phase, resulting in a concave-up middle rare Earth element pattern. Compositional similarities between the Muslim Bagh Ophiolite plagiogranites and Archaean TTG (trondhjemite–tonalite–granodiorite) has implications for the generation of juvenile Archaean continental crust. As the Muslim Bagh Ophiolite was derived in a supra-subduction zone, it is suggested that some Archaean TTG may have been derived from melting of mafic upper crust in early subduction-like settings. However, due to the small volume of Muslim Bagh Ophiolite plagiogranites, it is inferred that they can be instructive on the petrogenesis of some, but not all, Archaean TTG.
Modelling studies of the tectonic evolution of the Transantarctic Mountains in Antarctica have drawn differing conclusions as to the primary mechanisms involved. None has considered the role of the East Antarctic ice sheet in detail. We use a denudation—flexural model to examine the isostatic response of the continental margin to glacial erosion to determine whether glacial processes have played a role in forcing mountain uplift.
The conclusion is that, although there are insufficient data formally to delimit the role of glacial erosion, available geophysical and geomorphological data are not inconsistent with the results of the differential denudation model, providing certain conditions are met. These results indicate that the current topography of the Transantarctic Mountains can be simulated, in part, from the isostatic response of the lithosphere to glacial erosion. The short wavelength and high amplitude of the Transantarctic Mountains do not require a low flexural rigidity in the unrated lithosphere, provided there is a fast escarpment retreat from the rift hinge, high escarpment denudation rates and a large differential in denudation between the coastal zone and the interior.
In view of the challenge posed by climate change and the need to reduce dependence on fossil fuels, The Royal Society of Edinburgh Inquiry (2011) examined the barriers making it difficult for Scotland to change to a low-carbon society. The single most important finding is that, whilst widely desired, change is held back by the lack of coherence and integration of policy at different levels of governance. There is activity at the level of the EU, UK Government, Scottish Government, local authorities, local communities, households and civil society, but there is often a disconnection between policies at different levels. This impedes progress and also leads to mistrust among the general public. This paper brings together the background to ten primary recommendations featured in the Inquiry addressing the principal barriers. Above all, it is important to integrate the activities within city regions and to exploit opportunities in local communities. Reflecting on the Inquiry findings, we stress the economic, social and environmental opportunities to be gained from a low-carbon society and outline the step changes that need to take place within governance, city regions and local authorities and civil society.
Perfluorosulfonic acid membrane (Nafion®-117) was first surface modified with atmospheric pressure UV photo-oxidation or low-pressure vacuum UV photo-oxidation downstream from an Ar microwave plasma, and then graft polymerized with acrylic acid. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) was used to analyze the modified Nafion surface and poly(acrylic acid) grafted to the modified surface.
The recent drive within the UK National Health Service to improve psychosocial care for people with mental illness is both understandable and welcome: evidence-based psychological and social interventions are extremely important in managing psychiatric illness. Nevertheless, the accompanying downgrading of medical aspects of care has resulted in services that often are better suited to offering non-specific psychosocial support, rather than thorough, broad-based diagnostic assessment leading to specific treatments to optimise well-being and functioning. In part, these changes have been politically driven, but they could not have occurred without the collusion, or at least the acquiescence, of psychiatrists. This creeping devaluation of medicine disadvantages patients and is very damaging to both the standing and the understanding of psychiatry in the minds of the public, fellow professionals and the medical students who will be responsible for the specialty's future. On the 200th birthday of psychiatry, it is fitting to reconsider the specialty's core values and renew efforts to use psychiatric skills for the maximum benefit of patients
Since the mid-19th century central Europe had been the cradle of conceptual thinking in clinical psychiatry. Following the turbulence and persecution in the 1920s and 1930s some of a later generation of mid-European psychiatrists emigrated to Britain, bringing with them the traditions of meticulous and detailed observation, a broad clinical perspective and fresh ways of looking at problems. Among those individuals making significant contributions were Willy Mayer-Gross, Erich Guttman, Erwin Stengel, Felix Post, F. Kraupl Taylor, Max Hamilton and Martin Roth. Roth, who was born in Budapest in 1917, the last survivor of this extraordinarily gifted group, died on 26 September 2006 at the age of 88.
Gordon Smyth had a deep emotional investment in closed cavity surgery for cholesteatoma but, nonetheless, later acknowledged that he believed that he had been mistaken. Emotional investments create problems for all surgeons. Sometimes they have difficulty in recognizing that they need to change what they are doing. This is especially important in the management of Ménière’s disease where unproven surgical procedures are often perpetuated. Surgery on the endolymphatic sac is of doubtful value but still continues to be the most frequently performed operation for this condition. Surgeons need to reconsider the evidence and question the appropriateness of these operations.
A labyrinthectomy is known to relieve vertigo successfully in the majority of patients who suffer from Menière's disease and have non-serviceable hearing in the affected ear. It is assumed that the procedure reduces disability, helps the patient to return to work and improves the quality of life. Eighteen patients who underwent a transmastoid drill-out labyrinthectomy between 1980 and 1990 were interviewed and an attempt was made to evaluate the success of the operation in accordance with the guidelines set out by the AAO-HNS 1985. In the present series it was noted that although vertigo was relieved in 89 per cent of patients after labyrinthectomy, only 50 per cent of them returned to work. In this study, the age and occupation of the patient at the time of surgery and the relief of vertigo did not accurately predict whether or not a patient returned to work.